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Essay/Term paper: The history, use, and effectiveness of medicinal drugs

Essay, term paper, research paper:  Alcohol and Drugs

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The History, Use, and Effectiveness of Medicinal Drugs


I. The History, Use, and Effectiveness of Medicinal Drugs
A. Introduction
(Pg's 1-2) II. Aspirin
(Pg's 3-6)
A. Its Origin
B. Dosages
C. Relative Effectiveness
D. Side Effects
E. Alternate Treatment III. Sulfa Drugs
(Pg's 7-10)
A. Its Origin
B. Dosages
C. Relative Effectiveness
D. Side Effects
E. Alternate Treatment IV. Antibiotics
(Pg's 11-14)
A. Its Origin
B. Dosages
C. Relative Effectiveness
D. Side Effects
E. Alternate Treatment V. Antihistamines (Pg's 15-17)
A. Its Origin
B. Dosage and Use
C. Relative Effectiveness
D. Side Effects
E. Alternate Treatment VI. History, Use and Effectiveness of Vitamins
(Pg's 18-31)
and Nutrient Supplements VII. Future Prospects and Trends in
Pharmacology (Pg's 32-42) VIII. Recipe
(Pg's 43-44) Endnotes

(Pg's 45-46) Bibliography

(Pg's 47-48)

The science and ambidexterity of treating, diagnosing, and preventing disease is
known as the field of Medicine. In ancient times Medicine was a vague field,
mostly incorporated with magic and superstition, it was not like our modern
medical system of scientific analysis.

Early Amputation Tools Shown here are
the contents of a case of amputation instruments dating from about 1800.

Within medicine the most crucial component, besides the
professional Doctors,
Nurses and Pharmacologists are the drugs that make it possible for
millions of
humans everyday to overpower their ailments. Within the field of
Medicine,
Pharmacology is the study and methodology behind the actions of
drugs and
their reactions in the human body. Many early treatments didn't
actually heal
the patient, but just gave him a slight euphoria from the pain.
(Pg 1)

In today's culture, the medicines of our ancestors are now considered to be
harmful to oneself and are classified as illegal such as the drugs of marijuana
and opium which were key in the Chinese, and Native American medical system. The
origin of drugs vary from common plants, (Aspirin, Digitalis, Ergot, Opium,
Quinine, Reserpine) to minerals, (Boric Acid, Epsom Salts, Iodine) or synthetic
compounds. The difference in a drug from being helpful to being deadly is all in
the dosage, which is determined by the amount of the drug that is found in the
blood, this process is known as Serum Monitoring. The risk-to-benefit ratio of
drug use is also extremely important, a drug could totally help one ailment but
in turn cause another such as the drug niridazole, which helps schistosomaisis
but is known to cause cancer. Even the national government has some control over
the regulation of drug use. Proprietary drugs are sold over the counter and
promote less addiction that Ethical drugs which can only be obtained legally by
a written prescription by a registered doctor. Jurisdiction of illegal drugs
which produce a strong addiction is given to the Drug Enforcement Administration
of the U.S. Department of Justice. The most important article about doctor
prescribed drugs is that the doctor is aware about other drugs in which the
patient is taking, because one drug alone may be helpful but administered with
another could cause adverse side effects preventing recovery for the patient.

ASPIRIN

1"Acetylsalicylic acid, commonly known as aspirin is one of the most widely used
analgesics in the world". Used by Ancient Greeks and Native Americans it was
used to reduce fever and pain and could also be used as an anti-inflammatory
agent. It interferes with tissue contractions of the prostaglandin's which are
chemicals involved in the production of inflammation and pain. It modifies the
temperature-regulating portion of the brain, dilating blood vessels in the skin
and increases sweating which in turn cools the body reducing fever.

Aspirin also prevents the production of thromboxane which plays a key role in
coagulation cascade, which slows blood clotting and is helpful in preventing
heart attacks and strokes. It is derived from the bark of the willow tree, and
its activity is produced from chemicals called salicylates.

2"Charles Gerhardt a French chemist first synthesized the acetyl derivative from
the salicylic acid in 1853 developing the first type of aspirin," but Felix
Hoffman a German chemist was the first to realize its medical value in 1893.
Over a long period of constant use aspirin can cause iron deficiency, gastric
ulcers, kidney damage and if given to children having chicken pox or influenza
could cause the risk of contracting the fatal brain disease known as Reye's
syndrome.

Usage of Aspirin varies. Short term use of about 3"6-10 days" is recommended
without physician supervision but long term use requires periodic evaluations
and dosage restrictions.

Side effects also vary with the individual, they could include mild drowsiness,
allergic reactions, skin rash, hives, nasal discharge, stomach irritation, heart
burn, nausea, vomiting, constipation and in extreme cases erosion of the stomach
lining, activation of a peptic ulcer, bone marrow depression, hepatitis, and
kidney damage. Overdosing on this drug produces side effects such as stomach
distress, nausea, vomiting, ringing in the ears, sweating, stupor, deep and
rapid breathing, twitching, and convolutions.

Aspirin was the first non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NASID) but by far
not the last. 4"One and a half million Americans suffer from heart attacks each
year and about 200,000 suffer from heart related deaths". Aspirin helps millions
of people each year because it prevents premature blood clotting. No other NSAID
can compare with the price or efficacy of aspirin but ibuprofen can come very
close. Where aspirin might take up to 12 doses to relieve pain over a long
period a strong dosage of ibuprofen could help the patient in one dose.

Even though Ibuprofen works as well as aspirin care must be taken with its usage,
although it does not irritate the stomach as much as aspirin it accelerates the
damaging of the kidneys. Another problem between aspirin and ibuprofen is price.
5"A 30 day supply of aspirin could cost $3.95 where a 30 day supply of ibuprofen
could cost $22.95".

New studies prove that aspirin also has effect over migraine headaches,
cataracts, gallstones, diabetic eye problems, insomnia, weight loss for women,
wheat intolerance, leprosy and even hip replacement complications. Aspirin plays
an important role in keeping our bodies resistant against various illnesses and
helping in times of injury.

SULFA DRUGS

Sulfonamides, the chemical name for sulfa drugs were the first chemical
compounds to provide safe and effective treatment to most common bacterial
infections. Before the use of penicillin after the mid 1940's, Sulfa drugs
played a major role in antibacterial treatment which resulted in a sharp
decrease in deaths due to such bacterial infections. In today's modern medical
system sulfa drugs are used to treat patients of urinary tract infections. 

Sulfur in its natural form is a tasteless, odorless, light yellow solid, once
forcefully fed to children in the belief that it was good for their health.
Sulfur compounds, found in dairy products and eggs, are an essential dietary
ingredient.

Instead of killing bacteria sulfa drugs prevent them from multiplying, making it
easier for the bodies natural defenses to overcome and destroy them. Bacteria
require certain chemicals know as 6"para-aminobenzoic acids" to multiply, sulfa
drugs resemble the chemical structure of the acids and can be absorbed by the
bacteria. The sulfa drugs combine with the outer shells of the bacteria
therefore not allowing the real acids to penetrate.

All bacteria are not reactant to sulfonamides and have to be screened by the
physician to see if it is necessary to take a more serious action. Sulfa drugs
can be taken orally which is most common, or by an injection just beneath the
skin. In former medical history they were used to treat pneumonia, dysentery,
blood poising, cellulitis, bubonic plague, and conjunctivitis.

Since the recognition of penicillin as an effective bacterial assailant and some
bacteria becoming resistant to sulfonamides physicians have been less likely to
prescribe them since the late 1940's. The combination of sulfamethoxazole and
trimethoprim have given a new usage for sulfa drugs, now they can be used for
such ailments as middle ear infections, shigellosis and recurring urinary tract
infections.

7"Paul Gelmo in 1908 discovered the first sulfa drug" accidentally while looking
for dies to better color woolen clothing unaware its future lye in the medical
profession. In 8"1953 a German pathologist named Gerhard Domagk" reported that
this dye killed streptococcal bacteria in mice leading to the first research in
to the bacteria fighting drug.

Major problems included with the first line of the drug sulfanilamide were
included in the administration of the drug. It sometimes crystallized in the
urine of the patient causing kidney damage. Later development of water soluble
sulfa drugs solved the problem of crystallization in the urine and gave the hope
of a longer life span to people living in the 1930's.

ANTIBIOTICS

In the ancient language of Greek the term antibiotic meant 8ôagainst lifeö. They
are chemical substances produced by one organism that in turn are destructive
to another. This process traditionally has been called antibiosis and is the
opposite of symbiosis. An antibiotic is a type of chemotherapeutic agent, it has
a toxic effect on certain types of disease-producing microorganisms without
acting dangerously on the patient. Some chemotherapeutic agents differ from
antibiotics in that they are not secreted by microorganisms, as are antibiotics,
but rather are made synthetically in a chemical laboratory. 9"Alternately
examples are quinine, used against malaria; arsphenamine, used against syphilis;
the sulfa drugs, used against a wide variety of diseases, notably pneumonia; and
the quinolones, used against hospital-derived infections (zoonoses)". A few
antibiotics, among them penicillin and chloramphenicol, have now been produced
synthetically also. The first observation of what would now be called an
antibiotic effect was made in the 10"19th century by the French chemist Louis
Pasteur", who discovered that certain saprophytic bacteria can kill anthrax
germs. Around the year 11"1900 the German bacteriologist Rudolf von Emmerich
isolated a substance called pyocyanase", which can kill the germs of cholera and
diphtheria in the test tube. It was not useful, however, in curing disease. In
the 12"1920s the British bacteriologist Sir Alexander Fleming, who later
discovered penicillin", found a substance called lysozyme in many of the
secretions of the body such as tears and sweat, and in certain other plant and
animal substances. Lysozyme has strong antimicrobial activity, but mainly
against harmless bacteria.

(Sir Alexander Fleming)

Discovery of Penicillin

The research of Alexander Fleming in 1928 led to the discovery of penicillin, an
important antibiotic derived from the mold Penicillin notatum. Penicillin is
effective against a wide range of disease-causing bacteria. It acts by killing
bacteria directly or by inhibiting their growth.

Penicillin, the archetype of antibiotics was discovered by accident in 13"1928
by Fleming", who showed its effectiveness in laboratory cultures against many
disease-producing bacteria, such as those that cause gonorrhea and certain types
of meningitis and bacteria (blood poisoning); however, he performed no
experiments on animals or humans. Penicillin was first used on humans by the
British scientists 14"Sir Howard Florey and Earnest Chain during the 1940-41
winter".

The first antibiotic to be used in the treatment of human diseases was
tyrothricin (one of the purified forms of which was called gramicidin), which
was isolated from certain soil bacteria by the American bacteriologist 15"RenT
Dubos in 1939". This substance was too toxic for general use, but it is employed
in the external treatment of certain infections. Other antibiotics produced by
actinomycetes, filamentous and branching bacteria, occurring in soil have proved
more successful. One of these, streptomycin, discovered in 15"1944 by the
American microbiologist Selman Waksman and his associates", is effective against
many diseases, including several in which penicillin is useless, especially
tuberculosis. Since then, such antibiotics as chloramphenicol, the tetracyclines,
erythromycin, neomycin, nystatin, amphotericin, cephalosporins, and kanamycin
have been developed and may be used in the treatment of infections caused by
some bacteria, fungi, viruses, rickettsia, and other microorganisms. In clinical
treatment of infections, the causative organism must be identified and the
antibiotics to which it is sensitive must be determined in order to select an
antibiotic with the greatest probability of killing the infecting organism.
Recently, strains of bacteria have arisen that are resistant to commonly used
antibiotics; for example, gonorrhea-causing bacteria that high doses of
penicillin are not able to destroy may transfer this resistance to other
bacteria by exchange of genetic structures called plasmids. Some bacteria have
become simultaneously resistant to two or more antibiotics by this mechanism.
New antibiotics that circumvent this problem, such as the quinolones, are being
developed.

The cephalosporins, for instance, kill many of the same organisms that
penicillin does, but they also kill strains of those bacteria that have become
resistant to penicillin. Often the resistant organisms arise in hospitals, where
antibiotics are used most often, especially to prevent infections from surgery.

Another problem in hospitals is that many old and very ill patients develop
infections from organisms that are not pathogenic in healthy persons, such as
the common intestinal bacterium Escherichia coli. New antibiotics have been
synthesized to combat these organisms. Fungus infections have also become more
common with the increasing use of chemotherapeutic agents to fight cancer, and
more effective antifungal drugs are being sought. The search for new antibiotics
continues in general, as researchers examine soil molds for possible agents.
Among those found in the 16"1980s, for example, are the monobactams", which may
also prove useful against hospital infections. Antibiotics are found in other
sources as well, such as the family of magainins 17"discovered in the late 1980s
in frogs; although untested in humans as yet, they hold broad possibilities".
Antibiotics have also been used effectively to foster growth in animals. Concern
has arisen, however, that this widespread use of antibiotics in animal feed can
foster the emergence of antibiotic-resistant organisms that may then be
transmitted to human beings.

ANTIHISTAMINES

Antihistamines are drugs that block the action of histamine. Histamine, also
known as histamine phosphate, an amine (beta-imidazolyl-ethylamine, ergamine, or
ergotidime) that is a normal constituent of almost all animal body cells.
Histamine is also found in small quantities in ergot and purified meat products
and is produced synthetically for medicinal purposes. In the body, it is
synthesized in a type of leukocyte called a basophil or mast cell. In response
to certain stimuli these cells release histamine, which immediately effects a
dilation of the blood vessels. This dilation is accompanied by a lowering of
blood pressure and an increased permeability of the vessel walls, so that fluids
escape into the surrounding tissues. This reaction may result in a general
depletion of vascular fluids, causing a condition known as histamine poisoning
or histamine shock. Allergic reactions in which histamine is released, resulting
in the swelling of body tissue, show similarities to histamine poisoning; the
two may be basically similar, and the two conditions are treated similarly. The
release of histamine might also be partly responsible for difficult breathing
during an asthma attack. 18"In the 1930s the Italian pharmacologist Daniel Bovet
who live in 1907-1972, working at the Pasteur Institute in Paris", discovered
that certain chemicals counteracted the effects of histamine in guinea pigs. The
first antihistamines were too toxic for use on humans, but 19"by 1942 they had
been modified for use in the treatment of allergies". More than 25 antihistamine
drugs are now available.

Histamine also causes contraction of involuntary muscles, especially of the
genital tract and gastrointestinal canal, with an accompanying secretion by
associated glands. Because histamine stimulates the flow of gastric juices, it
is used diagnostically in patients with gastric disturbances. One drug effective
in treating gastric ulcers acts by antagonizing the action of histamine. The
ability of the body to localize infections may be due to the secretion of
histamine and the subsequent increased local blood supply and increased
permeability of the blood vessels. Antihistamines are used primarily to control
symptoms of allergic conditions such as hay fever. They alleviate runny nose and
sneezing and to a lesser extent, minimize conjunctivitis and breathing
difficulties. Antihistamines can also alleviate itching and rash caused by food
allergy. Chemically, antihistamines comprise several classes and a person who
does not obtain relief from one type may benefit from another. Side effects of
these drugs can include drowsiness, loss of concentration, and dizziness. People
taking antihistamines should not drink alcoholic beverages or perform tasks
requiring mental alertness, such as driving. A few antihistamines, such as
terfenadine and astemizole, are nonsedating. Although antihistamines are
included in many over-the-counter cold remedies, their usefulness in such
preparations is questionable.

Antihistamines may relieve symptoms of allergy accompanying a cold, or they may
have an anticholinergic effect that dries cold secretions, but they do not have
any influence on viral infections, which are the cause of colds . Moreover, the
drying effect may be undesirable, especially for persons with bronchial
infection, glaucoma, or urinary tract difficulties. Although there are not many
alternate drugs that have the same properties as antihistamines some non-drug
treatments are also effective against allergies. The use of High-Efficiency-
Particulate-Arresting (HEPA) filters, eliminate microscopic particles which
cause allergies. The use of mattress covers decrease the reaction to dust mites
in the mattress itself. These treatments are not equivalent to drug use but
could decrease the amount of allergenic agents in the house hold air. Vitamin C
also plays a role in the elimination of allergic reactions. 20"Researchers at
the University of California have found that patients that suffer from atopic
dermatitis benefited from large dosages of vitamin C".

THE HISTORY, USE AND EFFECTIVENESS OF
VITAMINS AND NUTRIENT SUPPLEMENTS

A Vitamin is any organic compound required by the body in small amounts for
metabolism, to protect health, and for proper growth in children. Vitamins also
assist in the formation of hormones, blood cells, the chemicals of the nervous-
system, and genetic material. The various vitamins are not chemically related,
and most differ in their physiological actions. They generally act as catalysts,
combining with proteins to create metabolically active enzymes that in turn
produce hundreds of important chemical reactions throughout the body. Without
vitamins, many of these reactions would slow down or stop. The intricate ways in
which vitamins act on the body, however, are still far from clear. The 13 well-
identified vitamins are classified according to their ability to be absorbed in
fat or water. The fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K are generally consumed
along with fat-containing foods, and because they can be stored in the body's
fat, they do not have to be consumed every day. The water-soluble vitamins, the
eight B vitamins and vitamin C, cannot be stored and must be consumed frequently,
preferably every day. The body can manufacture only vitamin D, all others must
be derived from the diet. Lack of them causes a wide range of metabolic and
other dysfunction's. In 21"the U.S., since 1940, the Food and Nutrition Board of
the National Research Council has published recommended dietary allowances for
vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients". Expressed in milligrams or
international units for adults and children of normal health, these
recommendations are useful guidelines not only for professionals in nutrition
but also for the growing number of families and individuals who eat irregular
meals and rely on prepared foods, many of which are now required to carry
nutritional labeling.

A well-balanced diet contains all the necessary vitamins, and most individuals
who follow such a diet can correct any previous vitamin deficiencies. However,
persons who are on special diets, who are suffering from intestinal disorders
that prevent normal absorption of nutrients, or who are pregnant or lactating
may need particular vitamin supplements to bolster their metabolism. Beyond such
real needs, vitamin supplements are also often believed to offer ôcuresö for
many diseases, from colds to cancer; but in fact the body quickly eliminates
most of these preparations without absorbing them. In addition, the fat-soluble
vitamins can block the effect of other vitamins and even cause severe poisoning
when taken in excess. Vitamin A is a pale yellow primary alcohol derived from
carotene. It affects the formation and maintenance of skin, mucous membranes,
bones, and teeth, vision, and reproduction. An early deficiency symptom is night
blindness which is the difficulty in adapting to darkness. Other symptoms are
excessive skin dryness, lack of mucous membrane secretion, causing
susceptibility to bacterial invasion, and dryness of the eyes due to a
malfunctioning of the tear glands, a major cause of blindness in children in
developing countries. The body obtains vitamin A in two ways. One is by
manufacturing it from carotene, a vitamin precursor found in such vegetables as
carrots, broccoli, squash, spinach, kale, and sweet potatoes. The other is by
absorbing ready-made vitamin A from plant-eating organisms. In animal form,
vitamin A is found in milk, butter, cheese, egg yolk, liver, and fish-liver oil.
Although one-third of American children are believed to consume less than the
recommended allowance of vitamin A, sufficient amounts can be obtained in a
normally balanced diet rather than through supplements. Excess vitamin A can
interfere with growth, stop menstruation, damage red blood corpuscles, and cause
skin rashes, headaches, nausea, and jaundice. Known also as vitamin B complex,
these are fragile, water-soluble substances, several of which are particularly
important to carbohydrate metabolism.

Thiamine, or vitamin B1, a colorless, crystalline substance, acts as a catalyst
in carbohydrate metabolism, enabling pyruvic acid to be absorbed and
carbohydrates to release their energy. Thiamine also plays a role in the
synthesis of nerve-regulating substances. Deficiency in thiamine causes beriberi,
which is characterized by muscular weakness, swelling of the heart, and leg
cramps and may, in severe cases, lead to heart failure and death. Many foods
contain thiamine, but few supply it in concentrated amounts. Foods richest in
thiamine are pork, organ meats such as liver, heart, and kidney, brewer's yeast,
lean meats, eggs, leafy green vegetables, whole or enriched cereals, wheat germ,
berries, nuts, and legumes. Milling of cereal removes those portions of the
grain richest in thiamine; consequently, white flour and polished white rice may
be lacking in the vitamin. Widespread enrichment of flour and cereal products
has largely eliminated the risk of thiamine deficiency, although it still occurs
today in nutritionally deficient alcoholics. Riboflavin, or vitamin B2, like
thiamine, serves as a coenzyme, one that must combine with a portion of another
enzyme to be effective, in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and,
especially, respiratory proteins. It also serves in the maintenance of mucous
membranes. Riboflavin deficiency may be complicated by a deficiency of other B
vitamins; its symptoms, which are not as definite as those of a lack of thiamine,
are skin lesions, especially around the nose and lips, and sensitivity to light.
The best sources of riboflavin are liver, milk, meat, dark green vegetables,
whole grain and enriched cereals, pasta, bread, and mushrooms.

Niacin, or vitamin B3, also works as a coenzyme in the release of energy from
nutrients. A deficiency of niacin causes pellagra, the first symptom of which is
a sunburnlike eruption that breaks out where the skin is exposed to sunlight.
Later symptoms are a red and swollen tongue, diarrhea, mental confusion,
irritability, and, when the central nervous system is affected, depression and
mental disturbances. The best sources of niacin are liver, poultry, meat, canned
tuna and salmon, whole grain and enriched cereals, dried beans and peas, and
nuts. The body also makes niacin from the amino acid tryptophan. Megadoses of
niacin have been used experimentally in the treatment of schizophrenia, although
no experimental proof has been produced to show its efficacy. In large amounts
it reduces levels of cholesterol in the blood, and it has been used extensively
in preventing and treating arteriosclerosis. Large doses over long periods cause
liver damage. Pyridoxine, or vitamin B6, is necessary for the absorption and
metabolism of amino acids. It also plays roles in the use of fats in the body
and in the formation of red blood cells. Pyridoxine deficiency is characterized
by skin disorders, cracks at the mouth corners, smooth tongue, convulsions,
dizziness, nausea, anemia, and kidney stones. The best sources of pyridoxine are
whole (but not enriched) grains, cereals, bread, liver, avocados, spinach, green
beans, and bananas.

Pyridoxine is needed in proportion to the amount of protein that is consumed.
Cobalamin, or vitamin B12, one of the most recently isolated vitamins, is
necessary in minute amounts for the formation of nucleoproteins, proteins, and
red blood cells, and for the functioning of the nervous system. Cobalamin
deficiency is often due to the inability of the stomach to produce glycoprotein,
which aids in the absorption of this vitamin. Pernicious anemia results, with
its characteristic symptoms of ineffective production of red blood cells, faulty
myelin (nerve sheath) synthesis, and loss of epithelium the membrane lining of
the intestinal tract. Cobalamin is obtained only from animal sources such as
liver, kidneys, meat, fish, eggs, and milk. Vegetarians are advised to take
vitamin B12 supplements. Folic acid, or folacin, is a coenzyme needed for
forming body protein and hemoglobin; its deficiency in humans is rare. Folic
acid is effective in the treatment of certain anemias and sprue. Dietary sources
are organ meats, leafy green vegetables, legumes, nuts, whole grains, and
brewer's yeast. Folic acid is lost in foods stored at room temperature and
during cooking. Unlike other water-soluble vitamins, folic acid is stored in the
liver and need not be consumed daily. Pantothenic acid, another B vitamin, plays
a still-undefined role in the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.
It is abundant in many foods and is manufactured by intestinal bacteria as well.
Biotin, a B vitamin that is also synthesized by intestinal bacteria and
widespread in foods, plays a role in the formation of fatty acids and the
release of energy from carbohydrates. Its deficiency in humans is unknown.

This well-known vitamin is important in the formation and maintenance of
collagen, the protein that supports many body structures and plays a major role
in the formation of bones and teeth. It also enhances the absorption of iron
from foods of vegetable origin. Scurvy is the classic manifestation of severe
ascorbic acid deficiency. Its symptoms are due to loss of the cementing action
of collagen and include hemorrhages, loosening of teeth, and cellular changes in
the long bones of children. Assertions that massive doses of ascorbic acid
prevent colds and influenza have not been borne out by carefully controlled
experiments. In other experiments, however, ascorbic acid has been shown to
prevent the formation of nitrosamines which are compounds found to produce
tumors in laboratory animals and possibly also in humans. Although unused
ascorbic acid is quickly excreted in the urine, large and prolonged doses can
result in the formation of bladder and kidney stones, interference with the
effects of blood-thinning drugs, destruction of B12, and the loss of calcium
from bones. Sources of vitamin C include citrus fruits, fresh strawberries,
cantaloupe, pineapple, and guava. Good vegetable sources are broccoli, Brussels
sprouts, tomatoes, spinach, kale, green peppers, cabbage, and turnips. This
vitamin is necessary for normal bone formation and for retention of calcium and
phosphorus in the body. It also protects the teeth and bones against the effects
of low calcium intake by making more effective use of calcium and phosphorus.
Also called the sunshine vitamin, vitamin D is obtained from egg yolk, liver,
tuna, and vitamin-D fortified milk. It is also manufactured in the body when
sterols, which are commonly found in many foods, migrate to the skin and become
irradiated. Vitamin D deficiency, or rickets, occurs


 

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