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Essay/Term paper: Abraham lincoln and jefferson davis

Essay, term paper, research paper:  American History

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Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis


Sunny Herren
American History
Mrs.Lynn
5 February 1997


In this report I compare two great historical figures: Abraham Lincoln,
the 16th president, steered the Union to victory in the American Civil War and
abolished slavery, and the first and only president of the Confederate States of
America, Jefferson Davis. Abraham Lincoln was the President of the Union, and
Jefferson Davis struggled to lead the Confederacy to independence in the U.S.
Civil War. Lincoln was treasured by the African Americans and was considered an
earthly incarnation of the Savior of mankind (DeGregorio 20-25). On the other
hand, Davis was both admired and hated. Lincoln had a different view of how the
U.S. should be in abolishing slavery. Davis was a politician, president of the
Confederate States of America, and also a successful planter. He had beliefs
for the South to continue in the old ways with slavery and plantations. Both
Lincoln and Davis had strong feelings for the protection of their land (Arnold
55-57).
Both Abraham and Jefferson Davis shared several differences and
similarities. Lincoln was known to have an easy going and joking type attitude.
In contrast, Davis had a temper such that when challenged, he simply could not
back down (DeGregorio 89). Davis had been a fire-eater before Abraham Lincoln's
election, but the prospect of Civil War made him gloomy and depressed. Fifty-
three years old in 1861, he suffered from a variety of ailments such as fever,
neuralgia, and inflamed eye, poor digestion, insomnia, and stress. Lincoln also
suffered from illnesses during the war. He had severe cases of headaches and
stress.
Both presidents had a lot of pressure of them due to the fact of
defending their region. Lincoln had difficulties growing up because of the
deaths early in his childhood, poverty, and little education. Davis; however,
studied at a Roman Catholic school in Kentucky and at Transylvania University,
and entered West Point in 1824. Davis seemed to have had an outreaching
environment to his success. The major difference, personality wise, was Davis's
weakness in his inability to get along with other people where Lincoln was a
well liked and easygoing man.
Both men shared a common bond in their education towards war. Davis
served at frontier military posts and in the Black Hawk War before resigning in
1835. Lincoln gained the respect of his fellow townspeople and was elected
captain of his company in the Black Hawk War. Lincoln started his political
career running unsuccessfully for the Illinois legislature in 1832. Tow years
later he was elected to the lower house for the first of four successive terms
as a Whig. Davis moved to Mississippi where he managed a plantation and studied.
In 1845, he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives as a Democrat. He
soon had to leave due to the Mexican War. Wanting to be made the commander of
the Southern army, he was instead elected president of the Confederacy on
February 8, 1861. In 1860 Republicans nominated Lincoln for the presidency on a
platform of slavery restriction, internal improvements, homesteads, and tariff
reform. He took oath of office on March 4, 1861. The Civil War started after
Lincoln took oath, and the battle at Fort Sumpter occurred. The upper South had
not yet seceded and when Lincoln took action to defend Ft. Sumpter, the
Confederates opened fire starting the Civil War. The South, lead by Davis,
suffered due to his poor health, which didn't make him an ideal chief executive.
Davis became increasingly unpopular as the war continued. Both President Davis
and President Lincoln still had to deal with Congress- in Davis's case with a
weak one, in Lincoln's case with a much stronger one (Eaton 160-163).
During the last year of the war, Jefferson Davis's speeches were in fact
inspiring that spring of 1865. Davis was in poor health under the strain of war,
he changed noticeably. He developed a closed sphinx like personality. The
finally of the war happened at Appomattox. Lee, Davis's army commander,
surrendered to Grant's army under Lincoln. When Jefferson Davis heard about
Lee's surrendered he wept, but refused to admit defeat. The combined Union and
Confederate casualties amounted to 33 to 40 percent of the forces involved. The
northerners had lost 359,000 dead, the Southerners, 258,000 (Canfield 85-87). At
the second inaugural, Lincoln summed up his attitude in the famous phrase "with
malice toward none, with charity for all." Lincoln publically announced his
support for black suffrage. This act sparked, the evil, John Wilkes Booth to
take action on which he had been plotting for an attack against the president.
John Wilkes Booth was a prominent Shakespearean actor with militant Confederate
sympathies. He believed that most Americans hated Lincoln so adamantly that
they would hail his assassin as a national hero. He was aroused by the prospect
of votes for blacks, and he was determined to carry out his assassination scheme.
Lincoln was shot at Ford's Theatre in Washington D.C. on April 14, 1865. The
president died the next day (Sandburg 522).
Davis was a suspect in the murder of Lincoln. The Northerners, not
knowing of any details of the assassination, made him a suspect. Davis was
captured and became very unpopular in the Confederacy; he was called a despot.
But his cruel treatment as a prisoner by the U.S. Government made him a martyr
after a time and restored him to immerse popularity in the South (Eaton 490).
These men gave many positive historical contributions. Lincoln was
elected with the bipartisan support and was reelected as a Whig to three
successive terms, Lincoln supported a system of improved transportation for the
state and creation of a state bank. Whig Congressman Lincoln served on the post
Roads Committee and the War Department Expenditures Committee. Lincoln had
intense opposition to the extension of slavery into the territories which
prompted him to abandon the Whig party and join the new Republican Party in 1856.
Lincoln issue toward slavery grew stronger. Lincoln once quoted "There is no
reason in the world why the Negro is not entitled to all the natural rights
enumerated in the Declaration of Independence- the right to live, liberty, and
the pursuit of happiness." Lincoln was elected as president and continued there
to contribute to the U.S. Soon the President would have his hands full with the
Civil War. Eleven states seceded from the Union in 1861 to form the Confederate
States of America. In September 1862 President Lincoln issued the Emancipation
Proclamation. Lincoln is praised for his excellence in leading the troops to
fight for the independence of slaves. The Civil War marked the end of slavery
forever. Lincoln ranked first of 31 presidents: best of the 5 "great"
presidents, he ranked above George Washington(DeGregorio 232-240).
No man in American history had to face heavier odds and greater
discouragement's than Jefferson Davis. He had been called the man who
symbolized the solemn convictions and tragic fortunes of millions of men. The
people of the South didn't agree with everything Davis believed, which made him
unpopular, but he won their respect and affection after the war through his
suffering in prison and through his lifelong defense of the Southern cause
(Canfield 129-131). In my opinion both Lincoln and Davis had an extreme impact
on American history. Lincoln had the largest problem in ending slavery. He, in
my opinion, had the greatest impact on America. In that harsh period of time,
being in favor for the black equality race was dangerous yet courageous.
Lincoln had have been one of the stronger presidents with all the difficulties
he ran into. The decisions were very critical and were thought out with extreme
care. By Lincoln serving as president, we prospered in many ways. His actions
brought about great challenges that he, and the following fathers of our country
would go through. The combining of both races and more freedoms would stir
troubles for many years to come. Although his actions stopped slavery, it
didn't stop the harsh treatment of the black race which carried out for decades.
Lincoln's Presidency was dominated by the war. The country was going through
major changes socially and economically. Though Davis led the South through
dramatic changes, no change has ever had more importance than the abolishment of
slavery. Both the North and the South gained knowledge from this horrid
experience of war. Lincoln's achievements‚Ä”saving the Union and freeing the
slaves‚Ä”and his martyrdom just at the war's end assured his continuing fame.
Both men have made their historical marks due to their great deeds, and ways
they both sacrificed their devotion to shape our country. I agree with most
historians that Lincoln had qualities that made him a great American statesman.
His keen intellect, humor and boldness, and compassion all contributed to his
presidency in unifying the nation and extending freedom.

 

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