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Essay/Term paper: Chad

Essay, term paper, research paper:  Political Science

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Chad is one of the most underdeveloped countries in the world because
of its climate, geographic location, and a lack of infrastructure and natural
resources. It's main cash crop that is helping it's economy is cotton, which
accounts for 48% of exports.1 The industry of Chad is mainly based on processing
agricultural products. It is run by a republican government and it's legal
system is based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law. The recent
president is Idriss Deby and head of government is Prime Minister Joseph
Yodoyman Chad had gained its independence from France on August 11, 1960. Its
national holiday is held on the same day every year.

The geography of Chad is mostly pastures and meadows. Chad is located in
Central Africa and is between the Central African Republic and Libya. The total
area is 1,259,200 km2, and the land area is 1,259,200 km2.2 The total size in
area of Chad is slightly more than three times the size of California. The land
boundaries of Chad are; Cameroon (1,094 km), Central African Republic (1,197 km),
Libya (1,055 km), Niger (1,175 km), Nigeria (87 km), and Sudan (1,360 km).3 All
of these countries total to 5,968 km. Chad is landlocked which has no coastline.
It has no marital claims. The disputes between Chad and other countries is that
Libya claims and occupies the 100,000 km2 Aozou Strip in the far north. The year
around climate is tropical in the south, and desert in the north. The terrain is
broad, arid plains in the center, desert in the north, lowlands in the south and
mountains in the northwest. The natural resources are petroleum, uranium, natron,
kaolin, and fish. The land use consists of arable land (2%), permanent crops
(0%), meadows and pastures (36%), forest and woodland (11%), and other (51%).4
The irrigated land used is 100km2. Its environment is hot, dry, dusty harmattan
winds occur in the north, drought and desertification affecting much of the
south, and subject to plagues of locusts.

The people of Chad rely on agriculture for survival. The total
population is 5,350,971 people. The growth rate of the population is 2.13%. The
birth rate is 42.21 births / 1,000 population. The death rate is 20.93 deaths /
1,000 population. The migration rate is 0% migrants / 1,000 population. Chad's
death at infancy is at a great risk at 134 deaths / 1,000 live births. For
infants the expectancy rate at birth is 40.41 years. The rate for males is 39.36
years and the rate for females is 41.5 years. Total fertility rate is 5.33
children born/women. The people of Chad are Chadian in nationality. The ethnic
divisions in the north are Muslim (Arabs. Toubou, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko,
Kanembou, Baguirmi, Boulala, Zaghawa, and Maba). In the south are non-Muslims
(Sara, Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye, Moundang, Moussei, Massa). The religions of
Chad are Muslim (44%), Christian (33%), indigenous beliefs, and animism (23%).
The common spoken languages in Chad are Sara (spoken in south), Sango (spoken in
north). The official languages of Chad are French and Arabic. There are over 100
different languages and dialects spoken in Chad. The literacy rate is at age 15
and over people can read and write French or Arabic. The total population of
literacy is 30%. 42% for males and 18% for females.

Chad has a republican government. The capital of Chad is N'djamena. It's
administrative divisions are 14 prefectures (prefectures, singular -
prefecture); Batha, Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Kanem,
Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai,
Salamat, and Tandjile. Chad had gained its independence on August 11, 1960, from
France. They had gained their constitution on December 22, 1989. Chad's legal
system is based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law, it has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction. The national holiday is held on the 11th
of August. The political parties and leaders of Chad are the Patriotic Salvation
Movement, Idriss Deby, and chairman. There are no other political party or
pressure groups. Elections were last held on July 8, 1990 and disbanded on
December 3, 1990. The Executive branch in Chad's government consists of the
president and the Council of State (cabinet). The Legislative branch consists of
unicameral National Consultative Council (Conseil National Consultatif) but was
replaced by the Provisional Council of the Republic, with 30 members appointed
by President Deby on March 8, 1991. The Judicial branch consists of the Court of
Appeal. The Chief of State leader is Col. Idress Deby since December 4, 1990 and
the Head of Government is Prime Minister Joseph Yodoyman since August 1992. Chad
is a member of ASST, ACP, AFDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IRBD,
flag has three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red;
similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flag of Andorra, which has a
national cost of arms featuring a quartered shield centered in the yellow band;
design was based on the flag of France.

An overview of Chad's economy; the climate and geographic location, and
lack of infrastructure and natural resources make Chad one of the most
underdeveloped countries in the world. Its economy is burdened by the ravages of
civil war, conflict with Libya, drought and food shortages. In 1986 real GDP
returned to its 1977 level, with cotton the major cash crop, accounting for 48%
of exports. Over 80% of the work force is employed in subsistence farming and
fishing. Industry is based almost entirely on the processing of agricultural
products, including cotton, sugarcane, and cattle.5 Chad is highly dependent on
foreign aid, with its economy in trouble and many regions suffering from
shortages. Oil companies are exploring areas north of Lake Chad and in the Doba
basin in the south. Good crop weather led to 8.4% growth in 1991. The GDP
exchange rate conversion is $1.1 billion. The national product per capita is
$215. Inflation rate is 2%-3%. The budget revenues are $115 million,
expenditures are $412 million, including capital expenditures of $218 million.
Exports are $193.9 million, commodities are; cotton 48%, cattle 35%, and
textiles 5%.6 Their partners are France, United States, Nigeria, and Cameroon.
Their imports are $294.1 million and its commodities are; machinery and
transportation equipment 39%, industrial goods 20%, petroleum products 13%, and
foodstuffs 9%. Its partners are France, United States, Cameroon, and Nigeria.
Chad's external debt is $492 million. The industrial production in growth rate
is 12.9%, which accounts for nearly 15% of GDP. The electricity rate is 40,000
kW capacity in which 70 million kWh is produced, 15 kWh per capita. Industries
in Chad are cotton textile mills, slaughter houses, brewery, natron, soap, and
cigarettes. Chad's currency is 1 CFA franc = 100 centimes.7

The economy of Chad has very low standards. The exchange rates are
communaute Financiere Africaine Francs (CFAF per US $1 - 274.06 in January 1993,
264.69 in 1992, 282.11 in 1991, 272.26 in 1990, 319.01 in 1989, and 297.85 in
1988.8 Chad's fiscal year is a calendar year.

The highways in Chad total to 31,322 km, 32 km bituminous, 7,300 km
gravel and laterite, and the remainder is unimproved earth.9 Inland waterways
are 2,000 km navigable. Airports total to 69. The usable airports total to 55.
Permanent-surface runways total to 5 airports. The telecommunications
department in Chad is a fair system of radio communication stations for
intercity links; broadcast stations - 6am, 1fm, limited television service; many
facilities are inoperative; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station.

Chad's defense forces consist of the branches, manpower, and defense
expenditures. In the branches there is the Army and the Republican Guard. In the
manpower availability males age from 15 to 49, total count is 1,246,617; fit for
military service 647,908; reach military age is 20 and annually 52,870.10 In
defense expenditures the exchange rate conversion is $58 million and 5.6% of GDP.


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