+ 1-888-787-5890  
   + 1-302-351-4405  

Essay/Term paper: Assumptions and principles underlying standards for care of the terminally ill

Essay, term paper, research paper:  Science Reports

Free essays available online are good but they will not follow the guidelines of your particular writing assignment. If you need a custom term paper on Science Reports: Assumptions And Principles Underlying Standards For Care Of The Terminally Ill, you can hire a professional writer here to write you a high quality authentic essay. While free essays can be traced by Turnitin (plagiarism detection program), our custom written essays will pass any plagiarism test. Our writing service will save you time and grade.

Assumptions And Principles Underlying Standards For Care of The Terminally Ill


There is agreement that patients with life-threatening illnesses, including
progressive malignancies, need appropriate therapy and treatment throughout the
course of illness. At one stage, therapy is directed toward assessment and
intervention in order to control and/or to cure such illness and alleviate
associated symptoms. For some persons, however, the time comes when cure and
remission are beyond current medical expertise. It is then that the intervention
must shift to what is now often termed "palliative treatment," which is designed
to control pain in the broadest sense and provide personal support for patients
and family during the terminal phase of illness. In general, palliative care
requires limited use of apparatus and technology, extensive personal care, and
an ordering of the physical and social environment to be therapeutic in itself.

There are, as it were, two complementary systems of treatment which may often
overlap: One system is concerned with eliminating a curable disease and the
other with relieving the symptoms resulting from the relentless progress of an
incurable illness. There must be openness, interchange, and overlap between the
two systems so that the patient receives continuous appropriate care. The
patient should not be subjected to aggressive treatment that offers no hope of
being effective in curing or controlling the disease and may only cause further
distress. Obviously, the clinician must be on the alert for any shifts that may
occur in the course of a terminal illness, which make the patient again a
candidate for active treatment.

Patients suffer not only from inappropriate active care, but also from inept
terminal care. This is well documented by studies that only confirm what dying
patients and their families know at first hand.

These principles have been prepared as an aid to those who have initiated or are
planning programs for the terminally ill in delineating standards of care.


The care of the dying is a process involving needs of the patient, family, and
caregivers. The interaction of these three groups of individuals must constantly
be assessed with the aim being the best possible care of the patient. This
cannot be accomplished, however, if the needs of the family and/or caregiver are
negated. 2. The problems of the patient-family facing terminal illness include a
wide variety of issues: psychological, legal, social, spiritual, economic, and
interpersonal. Care requires collaboration of many disciplines working as an
integrated clinical team, meeting for frequent discussions, and with commonness
of purpose. 3. Dying tends to produce a feeling of isolation. All that
counteracts unwanted isolation should be encouraged; social events and shared
work, inclusive of all involved, should be arranged so that meaningful relations
can be sustained and developed. 4. It has been the tradition to train
caregivers not to become emotionally involved, but in terminal illness the
patient and family need to experience the personal concern of those taking care
of them. Profound involvement without loss of objectivity should be allowed and
fostered, realizing this may present certain risks to the caregiver. 5. Health
care services customarily lack coordination. The organization structure must
provide links with existing health care professionals in the community. 6. A
supportive physical environment contributes to the sense of well being of
patients, of family, and of caregivers. The environment should provide adequate
space, furnishings that put people at ease, the reassuring presence of personal
belongings, and symbols of life cycles.


There are patients for whom aggressive curative treatment becomes increasingly
inappropriate These patients need highly competent professionals, skilled in
terminal care.8. The symptoms of terminal disease can be controlled. The patient
should be kept as symptom free as possible. Pain in all its aspects should be
controlled. The patient must remain alert and comfortable. 9. Patients' needs
may change over time. Staff must recognize that other services may have to be
involved, but that continuity of care should be provided. 10. Care is most
effective when the patient's lifestyle is maintained and life philosophy
respected. The terminally ill patient's own framework of values, preferences,
and life outlook must be taken into account in planning and conducting treatment.
11. Patients are often treated as if incapable of understanding or of making
decisions. Patients' wishes for information about their condition should be
respected. They should be allowed full participation in their care and a
continuing sense
of self-determination and self-control. 12. Dying patients often suffer through
helplessness, weakness, isolation, and loneliness. The patient should have a
sense of security and protection. Involvement of family and friends should be
encouraged. 13. The varied problems and anxieties associated with terminal
illness can occur at any time of day or night. Twenty-four hour care must be
available seven days a week for the patient/family where and when it is needed.


Care is usually directed towards the patient. In terminal illness the family
must be the unit of care. Help should be available to all those involved whether
patient, relation, or friend to sustain communication and involvement. 15. The
course of the terminal illness involves a series of clinical and personal
decisions. Interchange between patient, family, and clinical team is essential
to enable an informed decision to be made. 16. Many people do not know what the
dying process involves. The family should be given time and opportunity to
discuss all aspects of dying, death, and related emotional needs with the staff.
17. The patient and family need the opportunity for privacy and being together.
The patient and family should have time alone and privacy both while the patient
is living and after death occurs. A special space may need to be provided. 18.
Complexity of treatment and time-consuming procedures can cause disruption for
the patient/family. Procedures must be so arranged as not to interfere with
adequate time for patient, family, and friends to be together. 19. Patients and
families facing death frequently experience a search for the meaning of their
lives, making the provision of spiritual support essential. The religious,
philosophic, and emotional components of care are as essential as the medical,
nursing, and social components and must be available as part of the team
approach. 20. Survivors are at risk emotionally and physically during
bereavement. The provision of appropriate care to survivors is the
responsibility of the team that gave care and support to the deceased.


The growing body of knowledge in symptom control, patient/family-centered care,
and other aspects of the care of the terminally ill is now readily available.
Institutions and organizations providing terminal care must orient and educate
new staff and keep all staff informed about developments as they occur. 22. Good
terminal care presupposes emotional investment on the part of the staff. Staff
needs time and encouragement to develop and maintain relationships with patients
and relatives. 23. Emotional commitment to good terminal care will often produce
emotional exhaustion. Effective staff support systems must be readily available.


Other sample model essays:

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Imagine living in a world where sights, sounds, images and thoughts are constantly changing and shifting. Unable to focus on whatever task is...
Science Reports / Attention Deficit Disorder
Attention Deficit Disorder For centuries children have been grounded, beaten, or even killed for ignoring the rules or not listening to what they're told. In the past it was thought these...
Auguments about Abortion Abortion is one of the most controversial issues around, and is an issue that will never be agreed upon. By bringing morals into the question of whether it should ...
Science Reports / Autism
Autism Autism is one of the mental, emotional, and behavior disorders that appears in early childhood. Autism, or autistic disorder, almost always develops within the first 3 years of a c...
Autonomy Vs. Paternalism In Mental Health Treatment The assignment for this Ethics class was to review Mr. Jacob's treatment, as described by the New York State Commission on Quality of...
Science Reports / Beta Carotene
Beta Carotene Beta-carotene is a member of the carotenoid family and has over 500 relatives. Carotenoids are yellow-to-red pigments found in all green plant tissues and in some species of a...
Science Reports / Assisted Suicide
Assisted Suicide In thousands of homes across the nation victims of terminal illnesses sit in pain due to their sicknesses. Should these people have to go through all of that pain and suf...
Science Reports / Bipolar Affective Disorder
Bipolar Affective Disorder The phenomenon of Bipolar Affective Disorder has been a mystery since the 16th and 17th century. The Dutch painter Vincent Van Gogh was thought to of suffered f...
Breach of Confidentiality: The Legal Implications When You Are Seeking Therapy Abnormal Psychology 204 November 2, 1996 Breach of Confidentiality: The legal Implications when You are seeking...
Science Reports / Breast Cancer Treatment
Breast Cancer Treatment Only lung cancer kills more women each year in the United States than breast cancer does. The American Cancer Society (ACS) estimates that over 184,000 new cases o...
Experience with Dream Essay - Reliable and great customer service. Quality of work - High quality of work.
Browns Mills, New Jersey, United States
Dream Essay - Very reliable and great customer service. Encourage other to try their service. Writer 91463 - Provided a well written Annotated Bibliography with great deal of detail per the rubric.
Browns Mills, New Jersey, United States
it is always perfect
Frederick, Maryland, United States
The experience with Dream Essay is stress free. Service is excellent and forms various forms of communication all help with customer service. Dream Essay is customer oriented. Writer 17663 is absolutely excellent. This writer provides the highest quality of work possible.
Browns Mills, New Jersey, United States
Only competent & proven writers
Original writing — no plagiarism
Our papers are never resold or reused, period
Satisfaction guarantee — free unlimited revisions
Client-friendly money back guarantee
Total confidentiality & privacy
Guaranteed deadlines
Live Chat & 24/7 customer support
All academic and professional subjects
All difficulty levels
12pt Times New Roman font, double spaced, 1 inch margins
The fastest turnaround in the industry
Fully documented research — free bibliography guaranteed
Fax (additional info): 866-332-0244
Fax (additional info): 866-308-7123
Live Chat Support
Need order related assistance?—Click here to submit a inquiry
© Dreamessays.com. All Rights Reserved.
Dreamessays.com is the property of MEDIATECH LTD