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Essay/Term paper: Evolutionism vs creationism

Essay, term paper, research paper:  Sociology Term Papers

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Questions on the origin of life and of the universe must have challenged human curiosity and imagination as soon as early man had time for activities other than survival. In 1859, Charles Darwin published the Origin of Species, and since then, people have debated between the creationism and evolutionism theories. The theory of evolution has been supported only through various religious writings, particularly the Bible.
Creationists believe in a divine creator, God. Creationism has a broad range of beliefs involving a reliance on God"s miraculous work to explain the origin of the universe, of life, and of the different kinds of plants and animals on Earth. According to the creationist view, God willed everything into existence, and this is how humans came onto the Earth. Creationists say that the evolution theory is biased and incomplete. They believe that the fossil records fail to provide a link between diverse groups. To find out how old fossils are, scientists use a method called radioisotope dating, which measures the amount of uranium or lead lost over the years. Creationists deny evidence from this testing because they assume no uranium or lead has been lost over the years.
The process of evolution, which all living things developed from unicellular organisms, over billions of years Exactly how evolution occurs is still debated but it is a scientific fact that it does occur. Most biologists believe that the modern theory of evolution arose from a history of mutations either physically or chemically and it is still occurring. All organisms can be traced back to a common ancestor from inanimate matter.
The science of paleontology or the study of life provides the most direct proof of evolution in the past through fossil remains or impressions, usually in rock. Other evidence comes from comparative studies of living animals and plants, including their structure and geographical locations. "Mollusks and vascular plants account for more than 80 percent" (Futuyma 87) of the world"s species, with about "1.4 to 1.8 million species" (Futuyma 87) in all.
Changes occur in living organisms to help increase their adaptability, or potential for survival and reproduction, in the face of changing environments. Evolution apparently has no built-in direction or purpose. A given kind of organism may evolve only when it occurs in a variety of forms differing in hereditary characteristics, or traits, that are passed from parent to offspring. By chance, some varieties prove to be poorly adapted to their current environment and thus disappear, whereas others prove to be adaptive, and their numbers increase. The elimination of the unfit, or the "survival of the fittest," is known as natural selection because it is nature that discards or favors a particular variant. Basically, evolution takes place only when natural selection operates on a population of organisms containing diverse inheritable forms.
Creationists have gone back to the basic laws of nature to see if evolution is physically possible given enough time and opportunity. The one major problem that they see is the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics. It states, "All natural systems degenerate when left to themselves". This is why everything falls apart and decays over time. Creationists point to death as being the ultimate manifestation of this law. This physics principle does not allow for something as complex as the human eye to originate from something simple. The eye must follow the tendency for complete degeneration. Creationists see a downward spiral for every living and non-living creation. Everything breaks down into simpler substances; they do not become more complex. Creationists say that, in the real world the long-term flow is downhill, not uphill. An experimental and physical observation appears to confirm that the law is indeed universal, affecting all natural processes in the long run.
The evolutionists do not see the Second Law of

Thermodynamics as a contradiction to evolutionary processes,

because as it "specifically states that the entropy of a closed system cannot decrease. The law pertains to closed systems. The earth, and therefore evolution, is not a closed system" (Creation Science FAQ) As we know, there are no closed system on earth, "so in no way can any living system on Earth directly violate the second law" (Creation Science FAQ) Therefore, this argument is invalid.
The age of the universe, perhaps billions of years old, shows that life has had lots of time to evolve from single celled organisms to what we are today. Through fossils, and other evidences, it shows that humans came from primates, which is not surprising, since we are almost physically identical to a chimpanzee. In the beginning, very simple life forms began gradually appearing. These simple life forms gradually changed to complex ones, and there have been transitional "links" between the different kinds, such as fishes and primates. They both have the same types of bones, for example, forearms, wrists, elbows, upper arms, and shoulders. They seem to be related to a common ancestor.
The Bible says that an omnipotent being, created the earth and everything on it in 6 days. He also created everything out of nothing. This is literally impossible, it challenges all physics laws, so it cannot be done. The only proof that Creationists have of the origin of life is the Bible. Evolutionists have much more proofs or evidence of how humans appeared on the earth.
The Bible, whether intended literally or figuratively, is definitely an important piece of literature. To believe that the age of the earth is only 10,000 years old does not support the validity of the creationists. To many scholars, the Bible is a figurative book of parables, not to be taken literally. The use of the Bible may be hindering, instead of supporting, the validity of the creationist"s arguments. It is clear that evolution is much clearer to understand and accept than the creationism theory. There will always be people who will still be curious as to how we appeared on the earth, and some people will oppose the evolution theory, therefore, the evolutionism/creationism debate will forever continue.
Works Cited
Creation Science FAQ

Drew Thinks About Evolutionism vs Creationism.

Futuyma, Douglas J. Evolutionary Biology. 3rd ed. Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates inc., 1997. General QH 366.2.F87

Montagu, Ashley, ed. Science and Creationism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1984. General QH 371.S343

Strahler, Arthur N. Science and Earth History. The Evolution/Creation Controversy. New York: Prometheus Books, 1987. BS 652.S77

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