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Essay/Term paper: Anxiety

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Analysis of _The Age of Anxiety_ by W.H. Auden

The themes and ideas in Auden's _The Age of Anxiety_ reflect his belief

that man's quest for self actualization is in vain.

I. Auden's background

A. As a 1930's poet

1. Views of Society

2. Diagnosis of the industrial society

B. Major conflicts of his works

II. _The Age of Anxiety_ overview

A. As a quest poem

1. Characters' search for self-actualization

2. Characters' inevitable failure in the quest

B. Characters' views on the general situation

1. Their belief to be in Purgatory when they are allegorically in Hell

2. Their disbelief in impossibility

III. _The Age of Anxiety_ character analysis

A. Quant

B. Malin

C. Rosetta

D. Emble

IV. Part I

A. Commonly called "Prologue"

B. Introduces scene and characters

C. Characters think aloud to reveal their nature

1. Quant views himself with false admiration

2. Malin examines the theoretical nature of man

3. Rosetta endeavors to create an imaginary and happy past

4. Emble passes his youthful judgment on the others' follies

V. First act of Part II, "The Seven Ages"

A. Malin's domination of this act

1. Serves as a guide

2. Controls the characters through his introduction of each age

B. Others support Malin's theories by drawing from past, present, and

potential future experiences

C. The ages

1. The first age

a. Malin asks the reader to "Behold the infant"

b. Child is "helpless in cradle and / Righteous still" but already has a

"Dread in his dreams"

2. The second age

a. Youth, as Malin describes it

b. Age at which man realizes "his life-bet with a lying self"

c. Naive belief in self and place in life is boundless

d. It is the age of belief in the possibility of a future

3. The third age

a. The sexual awakening

b. Distinction between dream and reality

c. Discovery that love, as it was thought to be, is a sharp contrast to love

in the bounds of reality

4. The fourth age

a. Presents circus imagery "as a form of art too close to life to have any

purgative effect on the audience"

b. Rosetta's definition of life and the world

5. The fifth age

a. Conveys the image of man as "an astonished victor"

b. Man believes he has made peace with the meaning of life

c. Anxiety declines as "He [man] learns to speak / Softer and slower, not

to seem so eager"

d. Man is no longer confined to a prison of prismatic color, but is free in

the dull, bland place that is the world

e. Emble's opposition of the fifth age

(1) Refuses to go willingly into middle age

(2) Demands to know why man must "Leave out the worst / Pang of


(3) Is disturbed by time unlike the others for he is still young enough to

have a future

f. Quant's domination of the fifth age

(1) Attempt to eliminate all hope

(2) View on man's adaptation to the fifth age

6. The sixth age

a. Man begins to show age

b. "Impotent, aged, and successful," Malin's portrayal of a man of this

age is indifferent to the world

7. The seventh age

a. Hypothetical man is tired out

b. Malin is ready for this age in contrast to the others' reluctance to die

just yet

VI. Second act of Part II, "The Seven Stages"

A. Unlike "The Seven Ages," this act is nothing more than a dream

B. "The Seven Stages" is an attempt to find the perfect time of life

C. The stages

1. The first stage

a. Each character begins alone, "isolated with his own thoughts"

b. Justification of the view that the quest is for naught

2. The second stage

a. Is initiated by the first pairing of characters

(1) Shows possibility of hope

(a) Emble

(b) Rosetta

(2) Shows futility of hope

(a) Quant

(b) Malin

3. The third stage

a. Begins as the couples turn inland

(1) Emble and Rosetta by plane

(2) Quant and Malin by train

b. The characters complete the third stage without success in their search

for self

4. The fourth stage

a. Malin speaks for them all in his derogatorative statements about the


b. Malin passes judgment on its citizens based on the urban surroundings

5. The fifth stage

a. Rosetta visits a mansion in which she wishes she were raised and to

which she wishes she shall return

b. While Rosetta is within the house, the others examine its exterior and

its comparison to the human body

c. Rosetta finds life inside the house no better than before

6. The sixth stage

a. A "forgotten graveyard" is the setting

b. Symbolizes "The results of life"

7. The seventh stage

a. The characters wander deep into a forest, each taking a solitary path

b. They meet at the edge of the forest with a desert before them

c. As they realize that life has no meaning, the desert becomes the real

world, thus ending this stage with their awakening

VII. The remaining three parts

A. Follows the characters from the bar to their homes

B. The four remember the despair of the conclusion of "The Seven

Stages" rather than the journey itself

Analysis of _The Age of Anxiety_

In Auden's lengthy poem, _The Age of Anxiety_, he follows the actions

and thoughts of four characters who happen to meet in a bar during a

war. Their interactions with one another lead them on an imaginary

quest in their minds in which they attempt, without success, to discover

themselves. The themes and ideas that Auden's _The Age of Anxiety_

conveys reflect his belief that man's quest for self-actualization is in vain.

W. H. Auden was born in York, England, in 1907, the third and youngest

son of Constance and George Auden (Magill 72). His poetry in the 1930's

reflected the world of his era, a world of depression, Fascism, and war.

His works adopt a prose of a "clinical diagrostician [sic] anatomizing

society" and interpret social and spiritual acts as failures of

communication (Magill 74). They also put forth a diagnosis of the

industrial English society among economic and moral decay in the 1930's

(Magill 72). Conflicts common in his works are those between war and

peace, corruption of modern society, and the "dichotomy between the

rich and the poor" (Barrows 317).

_The Age of Anxiety_ is, in general, a quest poem. Unlike the ideal

quest, however, this quest accomplishes nothing. The characters search

for the meaning of self and, in essence, the meaning of life, but because

their search is triggered by intoxication due to alchohol, the quest is

doomed from the start. Throughout the quest, the characters believe

themselves to be in a form of Purgatory when they are allegorically in

Hell. They fail to realize this due to "the modern human condition which

denies possibility but refuses to call it impossible" (Nelson 117).

In _The Age of Anxiety_, there are four characters of significance.

Quant, the first to be introduced, addresses himself in a mirror, an action

typical to a drunken man. He is an aging homosexual widower who finds

refuge in the mirror because it offers him the easiest way of facing

himself (Nelson 117-118).

Malin, the most dominant character overall, is a medical intelligence

officer on leave from the Canadian Air Force. His background labels him

as the "would-be doctor and leader" in the world of _The Age of

Anxiety_. His name is reminiscent, in relation to the war, of a

malingerer, and the composition of his personality hints at the evil within

him (Nelson 118).

Rosetta, the most human of the characters, is a department store buyer,

and comes closer to self-actualization than any of the other characters in

the poem. Emble is a young sailor and would-be prince whose wish is to

have sex with Rosetta. Ironically, his failure to do so is the primary

composition of the climax of the work (Nelson 118).

Part I of _The Age of Anxiety_, the "Prologue" as it is commonly called,

introduces the scene and characters. The characters each think aloud in

monologue so as to reveal their true nature to the reader. Quant views

himself with false admiration, and Malin questions the natue of man.

Rosetta constructs an imaginary past to compensate for a less than

adequate one. Emble, with youthful tact, passes judgment on the others'

follies (Nelson 118).

The first act of Part II, "The Seven Ages," is dominated by Malin, acting

as a guide. He controls the actions of the characters through his

introductions to each age. The other characters support his theories by

drawing from their past, present, and potential future experiences

(Nelson 118-119).

The first age begins with Malin asking the reader to "Behold the infant" as

though he is observing us as the infant while his own infancy fails to

exist. The child is "helpless in cradle and / Righteous still" but already has

a "Dread in his dreams." By this, Auden means that even when we are

most innocent, we are still imperfect (Nelson 119).

The second age is youth, as Malin describes it. It is at this age at which

man realizes "his life-bet with a lying self." Despite this, man's naive

belief in self and place in life is boundless. It is in this age that the belief

in the future is possible (Nelson 119).

The third age is termed by Malin as the age of sexual awakening. It is in

this age that the distinction between dream and reality begins to surface

in the mind of man. With this distinction comes the discovery that love,

as it was thought to be, is a sharp contrast to love in the bounds of

reality (Nelson 119).

The fourth age presents circus imagery "as a form of art too close to life

to have any purgative effect on the audience." It is reinforced by

Rosetta's definitions of life as an "impertinent appetitive flux," and the

world as a "clown's cosmos" (Nelson 119).

Malin conveys the image of man as "an astonished victor" in the fifth age.

Man in this age feel as though he has made peace with the meaning of

life. The anxiety of life declines as "He [man] learns to speak / Softer and

slower, not to seem so eager." Here, man discovers he is no longer

confined in a prison of prisimatic color, but free in the dull, bland place

that is the world (Nelson 119-120).

Emble, being the youngest of the four, refuses to drift into the middle

age of the fifth age willingly. Instead, he demands to know why man

must "Leave out the worst / Pang of youth." He is unlike the others in

that he is still young enough to have an influence on his future (Nelson


Quant is more dominant in this age than any other for it is this age that

he represents. In it, he attempts to eliminate all hope for a future. He

feels that "if man cannot adjust to mediocrity, it is too bad. . . If man

asks for more, the world only gets worse" (Nelson 120).

The sixth age is attributed to man's "scars of time," to man's aging.

"Impotent, aged, and successful," Malin portrays man to be indifferent to

the world (Nelson 120).

"Hypothetical man" is exhausted when "His last illusions have lost

patience / With the human enterprise" in the seventh age. Malin greets

this age with preparedness, but the other characters feel reluctance in

greeting death (Nelson 120).

The second act of Part II of _The Age of Anxiety_, "The Seven Stages,"

is different from "The Seven Ages" in that the first act is based on

experiences and the second act consists entirely of a dream. The purpose

of "The Seven Stages" is to determine the ideal time of life for man in

which he can reside for eternity (Nelson 121).

The first stage begins like all quests begin, with all characters alone.

They are each "isolated with his own thoughts." Their journey ends in

the same fashion, with each of them alone, which labels this as a false

quest for nothing is accomplished (Nelson 121).

The second stage is initiated by the pairing of the characters. This pairing

represents the possibility of hope with the two youngest, Emble and

Rosetta, and it also symbolizes the futility of hope with the two eldest,

Quant and Malin (Nelson 121).

The third stage begins as the couples begin to head inland. Emble and

Rosetta travel via plane, which symbolizes the useless attempt to escape

life by flying above it. Quant and Malin, on the other hand, travel by

train, which represents the same inability to escape life, although this

time the method is through immersion into life (Nelson 121).

In the fourth stage, Malin speaks for the group in his derogatory

statements about the city. Malin also passes judgment on the people of

the city not on the basis of personality content, but on that of the

surroundings of which he thinks so lowly (Nelson 122).

The fifth stage is reached when the group sights "the big house" while

riding on a trolley. Rosetta, with her false past as an outline, references

the house to one in which she was imaginarily reared, and to which she

shall return. During her visitation to the house, Quant and the others

analyze the house's exterior. Quant comments on the house's

appearance"The facade has a lifeless look." The house is compared to a

human being, with its "book-lined rooms" serving as the brain and "the

guards at the front gate [who] / Change with the seasons" serving as the

senses. Rosetta finds her life within the house no better than before

(Nelson 122).

The sixth stage takes place in a "forgotten graveyard." It is observed as a

"still / Museum [exhibiting] / The results of life," which could either be

death or the life that results from death as the "Flittermice, finches / And

flies restore / Their lost milieu" (Nelson 122).

The seventh stage begins as each character plunges deep into a dense

forest where they are confronted by a vast desert. Here, Quant asks the

question, "Do I love this world so well / That I have to know how it

ends?" The four take heed of the question and realize that their quest has

no meaning, and as they do so, their dream world drifts upwards into

the realm of consciousness and the vast desert makes the transition to

reality (Nelson 122-123).

The remaining three parts follow each of the characters from the bar to

their respective homes. They each remember the despair of the

conclusion of "The Seven Stages," but have no recollection of the journey

itself (Nelson 123).

Auden has effectively portrayed the flaw of man in his fruitless quest for

the meaning of self. His representations of Quant and Malin as the elders

whose future is bleak counters the bright and cheery illusion that Emble

and Rosetta may possibly have a future, though, in reality, the only sure

future is death.

_Works Cited_

Altick, Richard D. _Lives and Letters_. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1969.

Auden, W. H.. _19th Century British Minor Poets_. New YorkDelacorte

Press, 1966.

----. _City Without Walls and Other Poems_. New YorkRandom House,


----. _Secondary Worlds_. New YorkRandom House, 1968.

Bahlke, George W., ed. _Critical Essays on W. H. Auden_. New YorkG. K.

Hall & Co., 1991.

Barrows, Marjorie Wescott, ed., et al. _The American ExperiencePoetry_.

New YorkMacMillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1974.

Kunitz, Stanley J. And Haycraft, Howard, eds.. _Twentieth Century

Authors_. New YorkThe H. W. Wilson Company, 1942.

Magill, Frank N., ed.. _Critical Survey of Poetry_. Englewood Cliffs,

N.J.Salem Press, 1982.

Nelson, Gerald. "From _Changes of Heart_ (_The Age of Anxiety_)."

_Critical Essays on W. H. Auden_. Ed. George W. Bahlke. New YorkG. K.

Hall & Co., 1991.


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