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Essay/Term paper: Aids and std education

Essay, term paper, research paper:  College Papers

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Adults (over the age of 18) from the _________ company and other
peope who I know were randomly assigned to receive the survey. The
group includes married males and females as well as single male and
females. There are 19 female and 31 male subjects.

A survey consisting of twenty statements concerning sexually
transmitted disease and HIV infection. The survey was designed by
myself . The purpose of the survey is to measure participants
awareness of AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases. I am trying to
show that people are not well informed about subjects such as condom
use, condom use and alcohol, transmission of sexual diseases, and the
magnitude of the AIDS problem. Subjects are asked to choose the level
with which they agree or disagree with each statement. There are two
levels of agreement and two levels of disagreement. See appendix A. A
consent form was signed by all participants. See appendix B.


Results

t-test*: t (48) = -2.2185, p < .0313
| | |
df cv pv



Variable N Mean Std Dev.
Minimum Maximum
Q1 50 1.420 0 .810
1.00 4.00

Q10 49 1.408 0.810
1.00 4.00

Q15 50 1.320 0 .621
1.00 4.00


Q3 48 3.396 0.869
1.00 4.00

Q9 50 3.240 0.822
1.00 4.00

Q6 50 3.220 0.834
1.00 4.00

Q16 50 3.100 0.621
1.00 4.00
Methods
Subjects
Adults (over the age of 18) from the company and other
people who I know were randomly assigned to receive the survey. The
group includes married males and females as well as single male and
females. There are 19 female and 21 male subjects. Ages ranged from
late teens to early fifties, with the majority being in their twenties.
Independent variable
Questions 6, 9, 13, and 16 on the survey.
I would be comfortable eating lunch with someone with HIV or AIDS.
I would be comfortable shaking hands with someone who has AIDS.
I am very well informed about HIV, AIDS and other sexually transmitted
diseases.
I would not have unprotected sex with someone unless they got tested
first.
Dependent Variable.
Awareness and education of AIDS and sexually transmitted disease.
Operational Definition
Awareness and education of AIDS and sexually transmitted disease equals
a total score of 12 or higher on questions 6, 9, 13, and 16 of the
survey.
Procedures

A survey consisting of twenty statements concerning sexually
transmitted disease and AIDS was given to fifty subjects. A t test was
performed on the results as well as a comparison of male vs. Female
scores on the Awareness and Education variable.




Discussion

Results of the survey have shown a need for additional education of
males concerning AIDS awareness and education. Females, (89%) did very
well on the variable which was measured for satisfactory knowledge and
awareness of AIDS and sexually transmitted disease. Males, (65%) did
also score well on this variable. This leaves us with 35% of the males
needing more education and 11% of the females needing to increase there
awareness and education. The rather large number of males needing
further education tend to support my hypotheses that yes more education
is necessary. I was pleased to see that on the whole, people are better
informed than I had originally hypothesized as demonstrated by the
scores reported for specific question. The lowest score or strongest
disagreement was on the statement that AIDS was no longer a big issue.
People also realize that just having one sex partner at a time is not
enough to protect you from AIDS as demonstrated by their response to
number 10. The strongest agreement with statements on the survey
concerned worrying about children's future.
This being the case, why is it that behavior as is described in my
research does not reflect this knowledge? People know what they need to
do to reduce their chances of exposure to AIDS and sexually transmitted
disease but they fail to do it. The research concentrated on students
who are exposed to much more information about AIDS than adults who are
out of the educational system. Further education about the dangers of
unprotected sex is needed as the study suggest, but we also need to
understand why education is not enough. We desperately need to develop
behaviors which will protect us from sexually transmitted disease and
AIDS.

Education Needed for

AIDS, HIV and Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Sexually transmitted diseases are a major health concern for our
country. With the

spread of AIDS among so many people, both gay and heterosexual, it is
important that we

understand how these diseases spread and what we can do to prevent
them. Continuing

efforts to educate college students about the dangers of unprotected
sex have resulted in

little evidence of positive change in sexual behavior (Saywer & Moss,
93).


During the 1980s, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the
cause of AIDS,

emerged as a leading cause of death in the United.States). In 1993, HIV
infection became

the most common cause of death among persons aged 25-44 years.(Center
for Disease

Control) Because of the long latency period for HIV a large number of
these people may

have become infected during the ages of 18 to 24 the ages of most
college students.

One of the national health objectives for the year 2000 for the
college age population is a

reduction in unintended pregnancy and transmission of Sexually
Transmitted Diseases,

including and HIV /AIDS.. Studies have shown a need for educational
interventions and

future in-depth studies of college students. An example is a study
which showed that a

group of college males who had a history of sexually transmitted
diseases, high numbers of

sexual partners and inconsistent condom use still perceived their risk
of HIV/AIDS infection

as very low.(Sawyer and Moss, 93).

College students are thought to be at high risk for Sexually
Transmitted Diseases

because of their high level of sexual activity and their potential for
multiple sex partners

Studies have shown that even students who consider themselves in long
term relationships

often experience casual sex with another partner ( Sawyer and Moss,93
). Multiple partners

seem to be the norm rather than the exception. Sawyer and Moss (1993),
reported that 21%

of the men sampled have had 2 to 3 sexual partners,33% 4 to 6 partners
and 39% 7 or more

sexual partners. Another study reported an average of 6 different
lifetime partners among

female college students. ( Kusseling, Wenger and Shapiro 95 )

It becomes very obvious that with this type of activity occurring,
the need for protection

from STD is very important. The most obvious and easiest course of
action would be for

college students to abstain from sex, have a monogamous relationship
with someone who is

not infected, or reduce the risk of infection by using condoms, but this
is not happening as

the following studies have shown. Nicholas D. Ritchie, PhD, and
Adelaide Getty, RN, BHS,

CHES (1994). Francoise S. Kusseling, MOB; Neil S. Wenger, MD, MPH; and
Martin F.

Shapiro, MD, PhD. (1995). Barbara A De Buono,M.D., M.P.H., Stephen H
Zinner, M.D.,

Maxim Daamen, M.D., and William M. McCormack, M.D. (1989). Anita Raj,
M.S., and

Robert H Pollack, PhD., (1995). Tina M. Brien,MSEd; Dennis L. Thombs,
PhD; Colleen A.

Mahoney,PhD; and Larry Wallnau, PhD. (1993) Robin G Sawyer,Phd, and
Donald J.

Moss, MD. (1993)

Condom use by female college students was reported to be 23%
initially and 27% after a

six month follow up, in a study of women attending a health clinic (
Kusseling, Wenger and

Shapiro 95 ) Another study designed to compare college women's sexual
activity before and

after the start of the current HIV and genital herpes virus epidemic,
concluded that there had

been little change is sexual practices with the exception of increased
use of condoms which

still had not reached the 50% point (DeBuno, Zinner, Daamen, McCormack
90). Another

study of college females done in 95 showed that 64% did not regularly
use condoms ( Raj

and Pollack ,95 ). In one study done by Sawyer and Moss,(1993 ) of
college men reporting

to a clinic for treatment of an Sexually Transmitted Diseases 75% of the
subjects reported

never or only occasionally using condoms.

One of the reasons that students do not use condoms is because
they consume alcohol

before they engage in sex. The alcohol acts as a disinhibitor
effecting the students judgment

to have sex and whether or not to use condoms for protection. In one
study of 243 college

students 81% of students over 21 said that they had at least once had
sex because of

intoxication. ( Butcher,Manning,O'Neal, 91have sex due to intoxication.
Over 18% of

students in another study said that they had abandoned safe sex
techniques due to alcohol

(Meilmand, (1993). The dangerous interaction between alcohol use and
high risk sexual

activities suggested that college HIV prevention efforts should make the
connection between

the two risk factors explicit. ( Butcher,Manning,O'Neal, 91).

Other reasons for the lack of condom use among college students are
their lack of

confidence in discussing and using condoms. Some of the lack of
confidence in discussing

condom use is that many students are afraid that their partner will
think that either they have

a disease or that they are afraid of catching one from them . Either way
they feel there is a

very high chance of rejection if the topic of condoms were brought up.
Communication self-

efficacy was the best discriminator between those who initiate
discussion about condom use

and those who don't. They felt confident in their ability to insist on
condom use and to

handle any arguments that might come up.(Brien, Thombs, Mahoney, and
Wallnau. 1993).

It is important that we recognize the need for education about
AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases . This study will investigate
peoples understanding of AIDS, HIV and sexually transmitted diseases.
It will show that more education is necessary to help control the spread
of these diseases . Students have been given the most education about
AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases yet they do not have an accurate
understanding of their chances of getting AIDS. The general population
doesn't have exposure to all of the AIDS awareness training that the
students do so I feel that they will know even less. The hypothesis for
this research is the following. People do not have an accurate
understanding of AIDS, HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. More
education is needed for the general population.









Education Needed for

AIDS, HIV and Sexually Transmitted Diseases

_____________________

Sexually transmitted diseases are a major health concern for our
country. With the

spread of AIDS among so many people, both gay and heterosexual, it is
important that we

understand how these diseases spread and what we can do to prevent
them.

During the 1980s, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the
cause of AIDS,

emerged as a leading cause of death in the United.States). In 1993, HIV
infection became

the most common cause of death among persons aged 25-44 years.(Center
for Disease

Control)

Studies have shown a need for educational interventions and future
in-depth studies of college students. An example is a study which
showed that a group of college males who had a history of sexually
transmitted diseases, high numbers of sexual partners and inconsistent
condom use still perceived their risk of HIV/AIDS infection as very
low.(Sawyer and Moss, 93).
This study will investigate peoples understanding of AIDS, HIV and
sexually transmitted diseases. It will show that more education is
necessary to help control the spread of these diseases .The hypothesis
for this research is the following. People do not have an accurate
understanding of AIDS, HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. More
education is needed for the general population.


Sexually transmitted diseases are a major health concern for our
country. With the

spread of AIDS among so many people, both gay and heterosexual, it is
important that we

understand how these diseases spread and what we can do to prevent
them.

During the 1980s, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the
cause of AIDS,

emerged as a leading cause of death in the United.States). In 1993, HIV
infection became

the most common cause of death among persons aged 25-44 years.(Center
for Disease

Control)

Studies have shown a need for educational interventions and future
in-depth studies of college students. An example is a study which
showed that a group of college males who had a history of sexually
transmitted diseases, high numbers of sexual partners and inconsistent
condom use still perceived their risk of HIV/AIDS infection as very
low.(Sawyer and Moss, 93).
College students are probably the best informed about AIDS and yet they
still need more education as their sexual behavior indicates. If this
group of well educated individuals needs more education, what does the
general public need in the area of AIDS and sexually transmitted disease
education. The way most people learn is through the news, magazines and
the newspaper. I do not think that this is enough.This study will
investigate peoples understanding of AIDS, HIV and sexually transmitted
diseases. It will show that more education is necessary to help control
the spread of these diseases .The hypothesis for this research is the
following. People do not have an accurate understanding of AIDS, HIV and
sexually transmitted diseases. More education is needed for the general
population.


SURVEY

Survey instructions

The following questions are a survey being done for a Psychology 221
research course. There are 20 questions about your ideas, beliefs and
sexual behavior related to HIV and Sexually transmitted diseases. The
time to complete this survey should be 15 to 20 minutes, so please take
your time and consider each question carefully and try to answer as
truthfully as possible. The survey is completely confidential as I will
not ask for your name or student ID. Number. The purpose of this survey
is to better understand the need for HIV and Sexually Transmitted
Diseases education. If at any time you do not feel comfortable
responding to a statement you may skip it or decide to stop taking the
survey. If you decide to stop taking the survey and leave please take
the unfinished survey with you to discard to assure your privacy.
Each statement is responded to by circling the most correct number under
each statement. Your answers are numbered from 1 through 4. Below is a
chart explaining the rating for each answer.

1. Totally disagree or None of the time
2. Disagree somewhat or Sometimes
3. Agree somewhat or Usually
4. Totally agree or All the time

Consent
Form
Date____________
I, _________________________, state that I am over 18 years of age
and that I voluntarily agree to participate in a research project
conducted by ______________ psychology student at ______. The research
is being conducted in order to better understand the need for HIV and
Sexually Transmitted Disease education. The specific task I will
perform requires me to fill out a survey about my beliefs about HIV and
sexually transmitted diseases, my chances of getting the HIV virus and
my beliefs concerning condom use and safe sex practices.. I will not be
asked to identify myself in relation to the survey which I fill out.
I acknowledge that ______________ has explained the task to me
fully; has informed me that I may withdraw from participation at any
time without prejudice or penalty; has offered to answer any questions I
might have concerning the research procedure; has assured me that any
information that I give will be used for research purposes only and will
be kept confidential.
I also acknowledge that the benefits derived from, or rewards given
for, my participation have been fully explained to me-as well as
alternative methods if available, for earning these rewards-and that I
have been promised, upon completion of the research task, a brief
description of the role my specific performance plays in this project.
There will be no reimbursement for your participation from me
(_____________) or the school.
__________________________
___________________________
SIGNATURE OF RESEARCHER SIGNATURE OF PARTICIPANT

__________________

Education Needed for AIDS, HIV and Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Abstract

Results of the survey have shown a need for additional education of
males concerning AIDS awareness and education. Females, (89%) did very
well on the variable which was measured for satisfactory knowledge and
awareness of AIDS and sexually transmitted disease. Males, (65%) did
also score well on this variable. This leaves us with 35% of the males
needing more education and 11% of the females needing to increase there
awareness and education. The rather large number of males needing
further education tend to support my hypotheses that yes more education
is necessary. On the whole, people are better informed than had
originally been hypothesized.

Measures

Survey
My age is___________
My sex is___________
My education level is______________
Check one, I am single _________, married __________, divorced
__________
I have children and their ages are 1-10 _____, 11-15______, 16-20_____,
21+ _____

1. Aids is a lower income and gay problem, I don't need to worry.
2. I would never go out with someone who was HIV positive, or who had
AIDS.
3. I worry about my children's future and them getting AIDS or other
sexually transmitted diseases.
4. People now have fewer sex partners due to AIDS.
5. People use condoms more frequently because of AIDS.
6. I would be comfortable eating lunch with someone with HIV or AIDS.
7. People do not use condoms as much after they have been drinking.
8. People know enough about AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases.
9. I would be comfortable shaking hands with someone who has AIDS.
10. As long as you only have one sex partner you are safe.
11. I don't worry about sexually transmitted diseases.
12. I believe that our educational system has been effective in
presenting AIDS related information to students.
13. I am very well informed about HIV, AIDS and other sexually
transmitted diseases.
14. We spend too much money on AIDS related research. It would be
better spent on cancer research which is more important.
15. I do not think HIV and AIDS is such a big problem anymore.
16. I would not have unprotected sex with someone unless they got
tested first.
17. People are more likely to become sexually involved if they have
been drinking.
18. I would feel comfortable discussing condom use with a potential
sexual partner before ever having any sexual contact.
19. Most single people usually have had a few drinks before they have
sex.
20. People who get HIV and AIDS kind of deserve it for being stupid

1----------2----------------3------------------4




Circle 1 for totally disagree
2 for somewhat disagree
3 for somewhat agree
4 totally agree


References

Nicholas D. Ritchie, PhD, and Adelaide Getty, RN, BHS, CHES (1994).
Did an AIDS peer education program change first-year college students'
behaviors? The journal of American college Health , January vol 42,
163-166

Dona Schneider, PhD, MPH; Micheal R. Greenberg, PhD; Monica Devanas,
PhD; Anu Sajja, MPH; Fern Goodhart, CHES; and David Burns, AM (1994).
Evaluating HIV/AIDS Education in the University Setting. Journal of
American College Health, vol 43, 11-15.

James Jaccard, PhD; Ruth Andrea Levinson, PhD; and Luann Beamer, MA.
(1994). Student Opinion Leaders and HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Risk
Behavior. Journal of American College Health, 1995, vol 43, (5) March,
p 216- 223

Barbara A De Buono,M.D., M.P.H., Stephen H Zinner, M.D., Maxim Daamen,
M.D., and William M. McCormack, M.D. (1989). Sexual behavior of
college women in 1975, 1986, and 1989. New England Journal of Medicine,
1990 vol 322 (12), March. P 821-825

Robin G Sawyer,Phd, and Donald J. Moss, MD. (1993). Sexually
transmitted diseases in college men: A preliminary clinical
investigation. Journal of American College Health 1993, vol 42 (3)
November, p111-115

Anita Raj, M.S., and Robert H Pollack, PhD., (1995). Factors predicting
High-Risk sexual behavior in hetrosexual college females. Journal of
sex and marital Therapy, Vol. 21, No.3, Fall, 213-223

Francoise S. Kusseling, MOB; Neil S. Wenger, MD, MPH; and Martin F.
Shapiro, MD, PhD. (1995). Inconsistent Contraceptive Use Among Female
College Students: Implications for Intervention. Vol 43,march191-194

Tina M. Brien,MSEd; Dennis L. Thombs, PhD; Colleen A. Mahoney,PhD; and
Larry Wallnau, PhD. Dimensions of Self-Efficacy Among Three Distinct
Groups of Condom Users. Journal of American College Health Vol 42
January

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention
1996 Vol. 45, No. 6 February 16

Philip W Meilman PhD. Alcohol Induced Sexual Behavior on Campus.
Journal of American College Health. Vol 42, (1) July 1993 p 27-31
 

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