+ 1-888-787-5890  
   + 1-302-351-4405  

Essay/Term paper: Born addicted to alcohol

Essay, term paper, research paper:  College Papers

Free essays available online are good but they will not follow the guidelines of your particular writing assignment. If you need a custom term paper on College Papers: Born Addicted To Alcohol, you can hire a professional writer here to write you a high quality authentic essay. While free essays can be traced by Turnitin (plagiarism detection program), our custom written essays will pass any plagiarism test. Our writing service will save you time and grade.

There are different characteristics that accompany FAS in the
different stages of a child's life. "At birth, infants with intrauterine
exposure to alcohol frequently have low birth rate; pre-term delivery; a
small head circumference; and the characteri stic facial features of the
eyes, nose, and mouth" (Phelps, 1995, p. 204). Some of the facial
abnormalities that are common of children with FAS are: microcephaly,
small eye openings, broad nasal bridge, flattened mid-faces, thin upper
lip, skin folds at
the corners of the eyes, indistinct groove on the upper lip, and an
abnormal smallness of the lower jaw (Wekselman, Spiering, Hetteberg,
Kenner, & Flandermeyer, 1995; Phelps, 1995). These infants also display
developmental delays, psychomotor retardatio n, and cognitive deficits.
As a child with FAS progresses into preschool physical, cognitive
and behavioral abnormalities are more noticeable. These children are not
the average weight and height compared to the children at the same age
level. Cognitive manifestations is another problem with children who have
FAS. "Studies have found that preschoolers with FAS generally score in
the mentally handicapped to dull normal range of intelligence" (Phelps,
1995, p. 205). Children with FAS usually h ave language delay problems
during their preschool years. Research has also shown that these children
exhibit poorly articulated language, delayed use of sentences or more
complex grammatical units, and inadequate comprehension (Phelps, 1995).
There are many behavioral characteristics that are common among children
with FAS. The most common characteristic is hyperactivity (Phelps, 1995).
"Hyperactivity is found in 85% of FAS-affected children regardless of IQ"
(Wekeselman et al., 1995, p. 299 ). School failure, behavior management
difficulties, and safety issues are some of the problems associated with
hyperactivity and attention deficit disorder. Another behavioral
abnormality of with children with FAS, is social problems. "Specific
diffic ulties included inability to respect personal boundaries,
inappropriately affectionate, demanding of attention, bragging, stubborn,
poor peer relations, and overly tactile in social interactions" (Phelps,
1995, p. 206). Children are sometimes not diagnosed with FAS until they
reach kindergarten and are in a real school setting. School-aged children
with FAS still have most of the same physical and mental problems that
were diagnosed when they were younger. The craniofa cial malformations is
one of the only physical characteristic that diminishes during late
childhood (Phelps, 1995).
"Several studies have evaluated specific areas of cognitive
dysfunction in school-age children exposed prenatally to alcohol.
Researchers have substantiated: (a) short term memory deficits in verbal
and visual material; (b) inadequate processing of inf ormation, reflected
b sparse integration of information and poor quality of responses; (c)
inflexible approaches to problem solving; and (d) difficulties in
mathematical computations" (Phelps, 1995 p. 206).
The behavioral manifestations of a child with FAS during the early
years of life are still apparent in children who are in grade school.
Hyperactivity is still the most common characteristic portrayed by these
children. Some of the descriptions used to
explain these school-aged children's behaviors include: distractible,
impulsive, inattentive, uncooperative, poorly organized, and little
persistence toward task completion (Phelps, 1995).
As a child reaches puberty and develops into an adult, some of the
physical, mental and behavioral characteristics change. These adolescents
begin to gain weight, but still remain short and microphalic (Phelps,
Cognitive abilities of children with FAS continue to be low
through adolescence and adulthood. Low Academic performance scores of
adolescents and adults are persistent throughout their lives. Many
cognitive tests have been done on adolescent/adults wi th FAS, and each of
them have found deficiencies in mathematics and reading comprehension
(Shelton & Cook, 1993).
The behavioral manifestations of adolescents and adults with FAS
continue to concentrate around the problem of hyperactivity.
Inattentiveness, distractibility, restlessness , and agitation are the
main behaviors stem from hyperactivity. "Vineland Adap tive Behavior
Scales results suggest that communication and socialization skills average
around the seven year old range"(Phelps, 1995, p. 207).
The prevalence of children with FAS is on the rise. More than

ever, children are being diagnosed with FAS. Better techniques and
knowledge by physicians are accountable for the increase. Physicians are
diagnosing more babies today with FAS, because th ey have more knowledge
and resources to evaluate the children at risk. FAS has no racial
barriers and has been reported by variable ages from neonatal to young
adult (Becker, Warr-Leeper, & Leeper, 1990). Estimates in the United
States of people with FA S vary from 2 live births per 1,000 to 1 per 750
(Shelton & Cook, 1993). "In a medical review of 5602 women, six instances
of FAS were identified among 38 children of alcohol abusing women.
Although 22 of the 38 were traced at follow-up, the outcome fo r the 6 FAS
cases per se was not specified. Nevertheless, 18 of 22 children of the
alcohol-abusing women were found to be in state hospitals" (Emhart,
Greene, Sokol, Martier, Boyd, & Ager, 1995, p.1550). For a doctor to
identify a child as having FAS, he/she must have the proper education. A
test to see if a child has a central nervous system dysfunction or growth
deficiency is not enough for a reliable diagnosis. An accurate diagnosis
would also involve a facial phenotype study (Astley & Clarren, 1 995).
The Southwestern Native Americans have the highest incidence of FAS in the
United States (Shelton & Cook, 1993). "Native Americans are three times
as likely as Caucasians to produce FAS children" (Shelton & Cook, 1993, p.
45). Tribes that have a loose social organization reflect a higher rate
of FAS compared to a structured organization because the structured
organization views a alcoholic female in the tribe as socially
unacceptable (Shelton & Cook, 1993). More cases of FAS are being
diagnosed , but there is many children who slip through the cracks and do
not receive the support that is needed.
There are few interventions and programs to help children that are
affected by FAS. "Most states fail to identify FAS program coordinators,
it is difficult to ascertain respective program parameters" (Shelton &
Cook, 1993, p. 45). Many children with FAS are living with an alcoholic
parent. Children of alcoholics are at greater risk for developing social
and emotional problems that need intervention options so they do not
follow in their parents footsteps and become alcoholics (Wekselman et al.,
199 5). "Even though public schools are attempting to work with FAS, the
bottom line is that more research needs to be done on treating FAS"
(Shelton & Cook, 1993, p.46).
Educators and administration personnel working in the school
system should be knowledgeable about FAS and the different age
characteristics, degrees of incidences , and interventions that are
available to their students. All children with FAS are at ri sk for
failure in school and in every day life. With proper diagnosis and
treatment that is available, some of these failures will be avoided.
The main element that is causing FAS is addiction. Children with
FAS did not have the choice of saying no and have to live with their
mothers decision to drink every day of their lives. Something needs to be
done with mothers who have babies that are ad dicted at birth. Laws and
other regulations will probably not solve the problem, but make it more
complex. A mother shouldn't have a child if she has an addiction problem.
Woman should be able to receive free abortions if they are addicts and
don't wan t to quit drinking during their pregnancy. A child should never
be born with fetal alcohol syndrome.

Astley, S. J., & Clarren, S. K. (1995). A fetal alcohol syndrome screening tool. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Reearch. 19, 1565-1571.
Becker, M., Warr-Leeper, G. A., Leeper, H. A. (1990). Fetal alcohol syndrome: a description of oral motor, articulatory, short-term memory, grammatical, and semantic abilities. Journal of Communication Disorders. 23, 97-124.
Ernhart, C. B., Greene, T., Sokol, R. J., Martier, S., Boyed, T. A., Ager, J. (1995). Neonatal diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome: not necessarily a hopeless prognosis. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 19, 1550-1557.
Phelps, L. (1995). Psychoeducational outcomes of fetal alcohol syndrome. School Psychology Review. 24, 200-211.
Shelton, M., Cook, M. (1993). Fetal alcohol syndrome: facts and prevention. Preventing School Failure. 37, 44-46.
Wekselman, K., Spiering, K., Hetteberg, C., Kenner, C., Flandermeyer, A. (1995). Fetal alcohol syndrome from infancy through childhood: a review of the literature. Journal of Pediatric Nursing. 10, 296-303.


Other sample model essays:

College Papers / Bosnia
The origin of the arms with the argent between 6 fleur-de-lys, which is now on the flag of the republic of Bosnia-Hercegovina, has long puzzled me, but they are in fact the arms of the Kotromanic fam...
College Papers / Breast Cancer
In the United States in 1995 alone, 43,063 died from breast cancer. It is the number two cancer killer and the number one cancer in females ages 15 to 54. On average if a woman gets this disease, the...
College Papers / Brecht Jones And Artaud
In LeRoi Jones's play, "Dutchman," elements of realism, naturalism and non-realism abound. The play features characters such as Clay, a twenty-year-old Negro, Lula, a thirty-year-old white woman, bo...
College Papers / Building A Friendship
A friend is someone who cherishes the special moments and memories of life with another person. A friend is a trustworthy companion. Friendship is a relationship which takes time to build. There are ...
College Papers / Business Studies
[ Your display is set for the "US-ASCII" character set. ] [ Some characters may be displayed incorrectly. ] ^ÑWhat is Business Studies?^Ò ^ÑBusiness studies is the study of how business...
College Papers / Cable Descramblers
In Technology News, by the year 2000 consumers will be able to be cable converters and descramblers at their local electronics store thanks to the FCC. Cable descramblers and converters are used fo...
College Papers / Camera Movement In Strict
Camera movement plays an important role in creating the ^feel^ of a movie. This is evident in ^Strictly Ballroom^, particularly in the dance sequences. The dynamic camera movement in ^Strictly Ball...
College Papers / Canada
This ISP is is about my views on the Canadian Constitution and what I think needs to be changed in it. Some topics I have chose to discus, which I think need to be changed ar ones such as the notwit...
College Papers / Capitalism And Democracy
From the very dawn of intelligent human interaction to the present day, the concept of capitalism has dominated the way we trade goods and acquire wealth. Except for the necessity of a simple communi...
College Papers / Capital Punishment
The death penalty is a necessary evil that has a positive effect on society today. It is an effective deterent of crime as well as a safeguard for society. It also helps to keep order in our citie...
Experience with Dream Essay - Reliable and great customer service. Quality of work - High quality of work.
, ,
Dream Essay - Very reliable and great customer service. Encourage other to try their service. Writer 91463 - Provided a well written Annotated Bibliography with great deal of detail per th
, ,
it is always perfect
, ,
The experience with Dream Essay is stress free. Service is excellent and forms various forms of communication all help with customer service. Dream Essay is customer oriented. Writer 17663
, ,
Only competent & proven writers
Original writing — no plagiarism
Our papers are never resold or reused, period
Satisfaction guarantee — free unlimited revisions
Client-friendly money back guarantee
Total confidentiality & privacy
Guaranteed deadlines
Live Chat & 24/7 customer support
All academic and professional subjects
All difficulty levels
12pt Times New Roman font, double spaced, 1 inch margins
The fastest turnaround in the industry
Fully documented research — free bibliography guaranteed
Fax (additional info): 866-332-0244
Fax (additional info): 866-308-7123
Live Chat Support
Need order related assistance?—Click here to submit a inquiry
© Dreamessays.com. All Rights Reserved.
Dreamessays.com is the property of MEDIATECH LTD