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Essay/Term paper: China

Essay, term paper, research paper:  History Essays

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China


The history of China is embeded with revolution and tension dating back
to the feudal periods and the " first unified Chinese empire under Qi Shi Huang
Di in 221 B.C. " The Confucianism ideology entrenched in the minds of the
Chinese people with its conservative base and the need to achieve harmony in
society has yet to be reached and most likely, never will. The proletariat is
at the heart of the Marxist-Maoist approach to politics and the basic way of
life for the Chinese masses considering that "...roughly 85% of the population
is based in peasantry..." While Marxism, as implemented by the Chinese
Communist Party (CCP) and Nationalism have historically hindered the people of
China; a growing need to conform to capitilism is plainly obvious if there will
ever be success in the global market.
The Marxist theory is based on a classless society where the proletariat
or working class is given the opportunity to exist on an equal social level with
the remainder of the people while given a form of leadership of its own for the
first time. The dictatorship of the proletariat in communist China called the "
peoples democratic dictatorship " is considered by the Chinese Communist Party
to be truly democratic, since it is the dictatorship of the vast majority, the "
people' over a tiny minority of reactionaries. The Chinese Communist Party
formed in 1921 is founded upon strict Marxist beliefs that coincide with ideas
expressed in the Communist Manifesto.

" The CCP has, as it's mission the creation
of a stateless classless society. Because the
dictatorship of the proletariat must be led by
the party of the proletariat, the CCP by virtue
of being the vanguard of the working class, and
because of its knowledge of Marxism-Leninism
and its organizatioal capacities, is best able to
understand and realize the interests of all people."

The Communist Manifesto described the " conquest of political power by the
proletariat " as the objective of the Communist. " The fundamentals of the CCP
were originally based on extreme "leftist' views that centered around the
proletariat. The party would virtually work for the victory of socialism in
China while at the same time, looking to dismiss capitalism.
Mao Zedong, one of the founders of the Chinese Communist Party in 1921
had views on the need to switch from an orthodox Marxist strategy which called
for the party to seek roots among the urban working class, to a rural strategy
centered on the exploited peasants, was interrupted by the leadership CCP and
its sponsors in Moscow.
The Chinese Communist Party was by no means a military power and it was
unable to sustain itself and flourish in the Nationalist-controlled cities. The
Kuomintang, a nationalist party was set out to unify China under one central
government. The KMT had in its possession adequate means to quash the
idealistic CCP and did so on a number of occasions. Some of which led to
rebellions such as the Long March led by Mao Tse-tung.
China, over history has experienced phases of both Nationalism and
Sinocentrism, both of which can be damaging to a developing country attempting
to compete economically in the global market. These ideas can relate back to
the ancient religion of confucianism. " Confucianism has been instramental in
the shaping of China's leadership. Not only does it emphasize a rigid hierarchy
kept in place by virtuous behavior. But it also holds that strict adherence to
proper behavior actually leads to correct thinking. " Accompanying Nationalism
and Sinocentrism was rebellion and unrest. Twenty-four historic dynasties
followed a common pattern of development. At the beginning of a new dynasty, a
period of national unity under virtuous and benevolent rule flourished and
usually was accompanied by intellectual excitement. A Mid-Cycle did exist where
a period of mediocre rule was present, implying corruption and unrest followed
by an End-Cycle, or natural disaster where the the ruler was unable to provide
workable remedies. Rebellion or invasion would insue sending the country
spiralling. The Sinocentric and Nationalist approach China maintained during
the Industrial Revolution resulted in the innablity to reap its benefits at an
early stage. The Sinocentric world view the government applied not only
hindered the success the Industrial Revolution had to offer, it also blinded its
own views of the growing powers in the West. " China had once considered itself
the center of the world and in it's long history....Since the Opium War in 1840,
however, China was increasigly forced to retreat by the superiority of the
Western powers. " Sinocentrism and Nationalism are issues in Chinam that have
historically had disasterous affects on the country at the time as well as
affects carrying over into the new age of capitalism.
Capitalism is at the root of economic success in most countries.
Organizations such as the World Trade Organizaition have accumulated countries
based, in part on thier way of life. Communism has not traditionally coincided
with economic success globally and the trend exists in the countries that are
currently members of the WTO. Presently there does not exist a communist based
country in the group of members.
The governmental approach as to limiting goods through central
leadership has become known as a...

"...centrally controlled command economy.
That is the central leadership detirmined the
economic policies to be followed and allocated
all of the country's resources....Once the Communist
Party leadership determined the country's political
goals and the correct ideology to follow, the State
Planning Commission and the State Economic
Commission then decided how to implement these
objectives through specific policies for agriculture and
industry and the allocation of resources. "

An approach of this kind to a country containing such vast potential and immense
population does not offer an opportunity to the proletariat class to produce a
means that would better his or her own personal lifestyle. The average worker
realistically has no reason to strive to produce a greater number of goods or to
produce those goods with any means of quality. " Enterprises were subordinated
to their higher authorities on all issues concerning production, employment,
investment and finance. Wages were set accordingly to seniority rather than
ability or effort. " Intellectuals such as Deng Xiaopeng have realized the
need to conform to the capitilist way of life. Since Deng Xiaopeng came into
power in 1978 real per capita gross national product has virtually tripled.
The idea of capitalism is in direct contrast with the historical
Marxist-Leninist and Mao Zedong Thought and because of its deep roots in the
Chinese way of life it has taken until present day for the political rulers to
realize its potential. Deng Xiaopeng once said " I don't care whether the cat
is black or white so as long as it catches mice. " However, the forces within
the Chinese Communist Party forced Deng to conform to their principles and
retreat from his own. Deng had to do so in order to remain in control and
maintain his position. In 1990 Deng resigned from the position which he held
within Chinese politics, the chairman of the State Military Commission.
An issue that must be kept in mind is that while it appears that China
might be attempting to adapt to the ways of the global market it must keep in
mind the risks that an rapidly expanding country once took, the United States
and the tragic Black Tuesday stock market crash of 1929.
Marxism, Nationalism and Sinocentrism have all presently or over time
worked against China flourishing into the new world of capitalism and free
enterprise. In order for China to succeed and reach the "harmony' its Confucian
ideology promises, Marxism, nationalism and sinocentrism must all be abandoned
in the attempt to reach a democratic, capitalist lifestyle and business practice.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Hay, Morris, Lin, and Yao. Economic Reform and State owned Enterprises in
China ,1979-87 Clarenden Press: Oxford. 1994

Infeld, Al. China as a Model of Development Orbis Books: New York. 1976

Kraus, Willy. Economic Development and Social Change in the Peoples Republic
of China Springer-Verlag: New York, Heidelberg and Berlin. 1990

Leonhard, Wolfgang. The Three Faces of Marxixm Holt, Rinehart and
Winston: New York, Chicago and San Fransisco. 1974

Ogden, Dr. Suzanne. China (Sixth ed.) Dushkin Publishing Group/Brown and
Benchmark Publishers: Connecticut. 1995

Waller, Derek J. The Government and Politics of Communist China Anchor Books:
Garden City, New York. 1991

World Press Review - Understanding China March, 1996.
M. Zuckerman. U.S. News and World Report - China's New Reality. March
15, 1995.


 

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