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Essay/Term paper: Gregor mendel

Essay, term paper, research paper:  Science Research Papers

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Gregor Mendel played
a huge role in the underlying principles of genetic inheritance. Gregor was
born, July 22 1822 in Heinzendorf, Austrian Silesia (now known as Hyncice,
Czech Republic), with the name Johann Mendel. He changed his name to Gregor
in 1843. He grew up in an Augustinian brotherhood and he learned agricultural
training with basic education. He then went on to the Olmutz Philosophical
Institute and later entered the Augustinian Monastery in 1843. After 3 years
of theological studies, Mendel went to the University of Vienna, where 2 professors
influenced him; the physicist Doppler and a botanist named Unger. Here he learned
to study science through experimentation and aroused his interest in the causes
of variation in plants. He returned to Brunn in 1854 where he was a teacher
until 1868. Mendel died January 6 1884.
In 1857, Mendel began breeding garden
peas in the abbey garden to study inheritance, which lead to his law of Segregation
and independent assortment. Mendel observed several characteristics of the
garden peas which include: plant height (tallness/shortness), seed color (green/yellow),
seed shape (smooth/wrinkled), seed-coat color (gray/white), pod shape (full/constricted),
pod color (green/yellow), and flower distribution (along length/ at end of
stem). Mendel keep careful records of his experiments and first reported his
findings at a meeting of the Brunn Natural History Society. The results of
Mendel's work were published in 1866 as "Experiments with Plant Hybrids" in
the society's journal.
Mendel's Law of Segregation stated that the members
of a pair of homologous chromosomes segregate during meiosis and is distributed
to different gametes. This hypothesis can be divided into four main ideas.
The first idea is that alternative versions of genes account for variations
in inherited characters. Different alleles will create different variations
in inherited characters. The second idea is that for each character, an organism
inherits two genes, one for each parent. So that means that a homologous
loci
may have matching alleles, as in the true-breeding plants of Mendel's P generation
(parental). If the alleles differ, then there will be F hybrids. The third
idea states that if the two alleles differ, the recessive allele will have
no affect on the organism's appearance. So an F hybrid plant that has purple
flowers, the dominant allele will be the purple-color allele and the recessive
allele would be the white-color allele. The idea is that the two genes for
each character segregate during gamete production. Independent assortment states
that each member of a pair of homologous chromosome segregates during meiosis
independently of the members of other pairs so that alleles carried on different
chromosomes are different distributed randomly to the gametes.
Mendel's
work was not recognized right away as an important scientific breakthrough.
In 1868 Mendel was promoted to abbot at the monastery and gave up his experiments.
Aside from his fellow monks and his students his work was ignored. In fact
the importance of Mendel's work was not discovered until 1900, sixteen years
after his death. His work was discovered by three European scientists: Hugo
De Vries, Carl Correns, and Erich Tschermak, working independently as they
preformed their own similar experiments. They credited Gregor Mendel as the
discoverer of the laws of heredity.
In conclusion, Mendel's work was very
important to the science community, and is to this day being studied. All
his work was done without himself ever receiving credit while he was alive.
His laws of heredity are still used today and he now has received credit as
the discoverer of the laws of heredity. 

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