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Essay/Term paper: Neutralizing acids and bases

Essay, term paper, research paper:  Science

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The sought to determine the effects of mixing various levels of acids and bases to see which combination would have the most explosive reaction, and measure the resulting pH levels. I did this by testing an assortment of different pH levels of acids and bases, mixing them together and measuring the results. Most of the experiments resulted in a pH neutral solution, except for the Sulfuric Acid and the Sodium Hydroxide. By far, the Sulfuric Acid was the most explosive, followed by the Citric and Acetic acid. Introduction The project I am doing has to do with the mixing of acids and bases with assorted pH levels and recording the results. The pH levels are a scale of 0-14 that measure the acidity or base content of a chemical. I became interested in this project when I first experimented with the "Volcano" project a few years ago. I wanted to investigate why this happened, how it happened, and see if I could make it better. If you have done the Volcano project, you would know that you use more vinegar than you do baking soda, but you might not know how much more. I looked up the chemical compounds and names of some common household items, then tested their pH levels. I was going to try to prove that this project can be used with different chemicals, different pH levels, and different amounts. I would show the ideal combinations of acids and bases that would give off this mild explosion. My conclusion could help people in the future who are doing the Volcano project, and want to get a more exciting explosion. Experimental Here is how I did my experiment. First I formed my hypothesis, and I thought how I should go about doing it. I decided to use Vinegar (Acetic Acid) and Baking Soda (Sodium Bicarbonate.) I used these because they are the basic and well know chemicals used in the "Volcano" project, which is a bubbling, fizzing foam caused by mixing almost any amount of Vinegar and Baking Soda. I first used any amount for a test, in this case it was a one to one ratio. The result was a very pasty solution, that foamed, but not as much as I had expected. After this I decided to try a ten to one acid to base ratio. Base being Baking Soda, or Sodium Bicarbonate, and the acid being Vinegar, or Acetic Acid for a control. I measured 10 ml. of Vinegar, dumped that into a two inch high glass jar, and wrote down the pH level. Then I measured one ml. of Baking Soda, mixed it with a very little amount of water so that I could take a pH reading, and dumped that into the same glass containing the Vinegar, starting my timer, and taking notes on what I saw. I then tried a similar experiment, using Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic Acid) as a substitution of Vinegar. This was complicated because I still had to maintain the ten to one acid to base ratio, and I could not mix two dry, or powdered substances together. I added very little water to the grounded up Aspirin, and then took its pH level. I only used five ml. of Aspirin, due to the fact that these pills are expensive, and I did not want to waste half a bottle of them. Since I only used five ml. or half the acid, I had to use .5 ml., or half the base as well. I did this, dumped them into the same container, ( I thoroughly cleaned it after the Baking Soda - Vinegar project) and wrote down the results. I then looked and tested some common household items, like antacids, cleaners, battery acid, vitamin C, lemon juice, and many others. Since I didn't have a source for hydrochloric acid, I added salt to vinegar to create HCl. I did the exact same experiment, using a ten to one acid to base ratio after testing them with pH paper, carefully wrote down the results, and then cleaned all of the used equipment. I repeated this until I could find no other chemicals to test, and than I made my charts. Discussion The following documents the outcome from my experiments. You can find the rest of the charts elsewhere on my report stand: Acids and Bases and their Levels  Chemicals pH Level Acid or Base Sulfuric Acid 1 Acid Citrus Acid 2 Acid Hydrochloric Acid 2 Acid Acetic Acid 2 Acid Ascorbic Acid 3 Acid Acetylsalicylic Acid 4 Acid Hydrogen Peroxide 5 Acid Sodium Bicarbonate 9 Base Magnesium Hydroxide 9 Base Sodium Hydroxide 12 Base As you can see, this chart tells you the chemical, acidity or base content, and it tells you whether its an acid or a base. The chart below will tell more about the chemicals I used and their formulas or scientific names. Chemical Name Chemical Formula Equivalency Acids Acetic Acid HC2H3O2 Vinegar Hydrogen Peroxide H2O2 Dental Rinse (Artificial Blonde) Acetylsalicylic Acid HC9H7O4 Aspirin Ascorbic Acid H2C6H6O6 Vitamin C Citric Acid H3C6H5O7 Lemon Juice, Citrus Fruits Hydrochloric Acid HCl Gastric Juices, (Stomach Acid) Sulfuric Acid H2SO4 Battery Acid Bases Magnesium Hydroxide MgOH2 Milk of Magnesia, (Antacid or Laxative) Sodium Hydroxide NaOH Drain and Oven Cleaners, (Drano) Sodium Bicarbonate NaHCO3 Baking Soda These are the chemicals that I used, along with their chemical structure and scientific names. You could see their pH levels on the 1st chart. The only few errors I could have had are when I cut the amount of Baking Soda an Aspirin in half so it would be more economical and easier to do. Other than that one, every experiment was done identically. Conclusion From my experiments and data collected, I have discovered that on average a pH level two to four acid will neutralize with a level eight to ten base. However, any Extremely high acid or base levels will not be neutralized, such as the Sodium Hydroxide or Sulfuric Acid, because they are such higher levels, the ratios would have to be changed to get an exact neutralization. I also found out how to get the most extravagant explosion using Sulfuric Acid and Baking Soda. However, for most houses where there is not any battery acid, Citric Acid, Hydrochloric, and Vinegar and Baking Soda work very well too. Note to environmentalists: The sulfuric acid was completely neutralized and properly discarded. Credits I would like to thank all the people who helped me with this project. I would especially like to thank my mother, for letting my go through an abundance of Baking Soda, Vinegar, and many of our other household items. I would like to thank my Father for helping me understand the science of this project, and my whole family for helping me do well. I'd also like to give credit to the following Brands of substances I used: Arm & Hammer Drano Revco Aspirin Mylanta Seaway And any other products I may have used along the way. Bibliography "Sodium Bicarbonate" American Heritage Dictionary and Electronic Thesaurus (1985) 21: 347 "Acids and Bases" Science Activities Winter 95, Vol. 31 issue 4, p28. McCarthy, E. Jerome Basic Chemistry Homewood Illinois: Irwin-Dorsey, 1968. The sought to determine the effects of mixing various levels of acids and bases to see which combination would have the most explosive reaction, and measure the resulting pH levels. I did this by testing an assortment of different pH levels of acids and bases, mixing them together and measuring the results. Most of the experiments resulted in a pH neutral solution, except for the Sulfuric Acid and the Sodium Hydroxide. By far, the Sulfuric Acid was the most explosive, followed by the Citric and Acetic acid. Introduction The project I am doing has to do with the mixing of acids and bases with assorted pH levels and recording the results. The pH levels are a scale of 0-14 that measure the acidity or base content of a chemical. I became interested in this project when I first experimented with the "Volcano" project a few years ago. I wanted to investigate why this happened, how it happened, and see if I could make it better. If you have done the Volcano project, you would know that you use more vinegar than you do baking soda, but you might not know how much more. I looked up the chemical compounds and names of some common household items, then tested their pH levels. I was going to try to prove that this project can be used with different chemicals, different pH levels, and different amounts. I would show the ideal combinations of acids and bases that would give off this mild explosion. My conclusion could help people in the future who are doing the Volcano project, and want to get a more exciting explosion. Experimental Here is how I did my experiment. First I formed my hypothesis, and I thought how I should go about doing it. I decided to use Vinegar (Acetic Acid) and Baking Soda (Sodium Bicarbonate.) I used these because they are the basic and well know chemicals used in the "Volcano" project, which is a bubbling, fizzing foam caused by mixing almost any amount of Vinegar and Baking Soda. I first used any amount for a test, in this case it was a one to one ratio. The result was a very pasty solution, that foamed, but not as much as I had expected. After this I decided to try a ten to one acid to base ratio. Base being Baking Soda, or Sodium Bicarbonate, and the acid being Vinegar, or Acetic Acid for a control. I measured 10 ml. of Vinegar, dumped that into a two inch high glass jar, and wrote down the pH level. Then I measured one ml. of Baking Soda, mixed it with a very little amount of water so that I could take a pH reading, and dumped that into the same glass containing the Vinegar, starting my timer, and taking notes on what I saw. I then tried a similar experiment, using Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic Acid) as a substitution of Vinegar. This was complicated because I still had to maintain the ten to one acid to base ratio, and I could not mix two dry, or powdered substances together. I added very little water to the grounded up Aspirin, and then took its pH level. I only used five ml. of Aspirin, due to the fact that these pills are expensive, and I did not want to waste half a bottle of them. Since I only used five ml. or half the acid, I had to use .5 ml., or half the base as well. I did this, dumped them into the same container, ( I thoroughly cleaned it after the Baking Soda - Vinegar project) and wrote down the results. I then looked and tested some common household items, like antacids, cleaners, battery acid, vitamin C, lemon juice, and many others. Since I didn't have a source for hydrochloric acid, I added salt to vinegar to create HCl. I did the exact same experiment, using a ten to one acid to base ratio after testing them with pH paper, carefully wrote down the results, and then cleaned all of the used equipment. I repeated this until I could find no other chemicals to test, and than I made my charts. Discussion The following documents the outcome from my experiments. You can find the rest of the charts elsewhere on my report stand: Acids and Bases and their Levels  Chemicals pH Level Acid or Base Sulfuric Acid 1 Acid Citrus Acid 2 Acid Hydrochloric Acid 2 Acid Acetic Acid 2 Acid Ascorbic Acid 3 Acid Acetylsalicylic Acid 4 Acid Hydrogen Peroxide 5 Acid Sodium Bicarbonate 9 Base Magnesium Hydroxide 9 Base Sodium Hydroxide 12 Base As you can see, this chart tells you the chemical, acidity or base content, and it tells you whether its an acid or a base. The chart below will tell more about the chemicals I used and their formulas or scientific names. Chemical Name Chemical Formula Equivalency Acids Acetic Acid HC2H3O2 Vinegar Hydrogen Peroxide H2O2 Dental Rinse (Artificial Blonde) Acetylsalicylic Acid HC9H7O4 Aspirin Ascorbic Acid H2C6H6O6 Vitamin C Citric Acid H3C6H5O7 Lemon Juice, Citrus Fruits Hydrochloric Acid HCl Gastric Juices, (Stomach Acid) Sulfuric Acid H2SO4 Battery Acid Bases Magnesium Hydroxide MgOH2 Milk of Magnesia, (Antacid or Laxative) Sodium Hydroxide NaOH Drain and Oven Cleaners, (Drano) Sodium Bicarbonate NaHCO3 Baking Soda These are the chemicals that I used, along with their chemical structure and scientific names. You could see their pH levels on the 1st chart. The only few errors I could have had are when I cut the amount of Baking Soda an Aspirin in half so it would be more economical and easier to do. Other than that one, every experiment was done identically. Conclusion From my experiments and data collected, I have discovered that on average a pH level two to four acid will neutralize with a level eight to ten base. However, any Extremely high acid or base levels will not be neutralized, such as the Sodium Hydroxide or Sulfuric Acid, because they are such higher levels, the ratios would have to be changed to get an exact neutralization. I also found out how to get the most extravagant explosion using Sulfuric Acid and Baking Soda. However, for most houses where there is not any battery acid, Citric Acid, Hydrochloric, and Vinegar and Baking Soda work very well too. Note to environmentalists: The sulfuric acid was completely neutralized and properly discarded. Credits I would like to thank all the people who helped me with this project. I would especially like to thank my mother, for letting my go through an abundance of Baking Soda, Vinegar, and many of our other household items. I would like to thank my Father for helping me understand the science of this project, and my whole family for helping me do well. I'd also like to give credit to the following Brands of substances I used: Arm & Hammer Drano Revco Aspirin Mylanta Seaway And any other products I may have used along the way. Bibliography "Sodium Bicarbonate" American Heritage Dictionary and Electronic Thesaurus (1985) 21: 347 "Acids and Bases" Science Activities Winter 95, Vol. 31 issue 4, p28. McCarthy, E. Jerome Basic Chemistry Homewood Illinois: Irwin-Dorsey, 1968. The sought to determine the effects of mixing various levels of acids and bases to see which combination would have the most explosive reaction, and measure the resulting pH levels. I did this by testing an assortment of different pH levels of acids and bases, mixing them together and measuring the results. Most of the experiments resulted in a pH neutral solution, except for the Sulfuric Acid and the Sodium Hydroxide. By far, the Sulfuric Acid was the most explosive, followed by the Citric and Acetic acid. Introduction The project I am doing has to do with the mixing of acids and bases with assorted pH levels and recording the results. The pH levels are a scale of 0-14 that measure the acidity or base content of a chemical. I became interested in this project when I first experimented with the "Volcano" project a few years ago. I wanted to investigate why this happened, how it happened, and see if I could make it better. If you have done the Volcano project, you would know that you use more vinegar than you do baking soda, but you might not know how much more. I looked up the chemical compounds and names of some common household items, then tested their pH levels. I was going to try to prove that this project can be used with different chemicals, different pH levels, and different amounts. I would show the ideal combinations of acids and bases that would give off this mild explosion. My conclusion could help people in the future who are doing the Volcano project, and want to get a more exciting explosion. Experimental Here is how I did my experiment. First I formed my hypothesis, and I thought how I should go about doing it. I decided to use Vinegar (Acetic Acid) and Baking Soda (Sodium Bicarbonate.) I used these because they are the basic and well know chemicals used in the "Volcano" project, which is a bubbling, fizzing foam caused by mixing almost any amount of Vinegar and Baking Soda. I first used any amount for a test, in this case it was a one to one ratio. The result was a very pasty solution, that foamed, but not as much as I had expected. After this I decided to try a ten to one acid to base ratio. Base being Baking Soda, or Sodium Bicarbonate, and the acid being Vinegar, or Acetic Acid for a control. I measured 10 ml. of Vinegar, dumped that into a two inch high glass jar, and wrote down the pH level. Then I measured one ml. of Baking Soda, mixed it with a very little amount of water so that I could take a pH reading, and dumped that into the same glass containing the Vinegar, starting my timer, and taking notes on what I saw. I then tried a similar experiment, using Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic Acid) as a substitution of Vinegar. This was complicated because I still had to maintain the ten to one acid to base ratio, and I could not mix two dry, or powdered substances together. I added very little water to the grounded up Aspirin, and then took its pH level. I only used five ml. of Aspirin, due to the fact that these pills are expensive, and I did not want to waste half a bottle of them. Since I only used five ml. or half the acid, I had to use .5 ml., or half the base as well. I did this, dumped them into the same container, ( I thoroughly cleaned it after the Baking Soda - Vinegar project) and wrote down the results. I then looked and tested some common household items, like antacids, cleaners, battery acid, vitamin C, lemon juice, and many others. Since I didn't have a source for hydrochloric acid, I added salt to vinegar to create HCl. I did the exact same experiment, using a ten to one acid to base ratio after testing them with pH paper, carefully wrote down the results, and then cleaned all of the used equipment. I repeated this until I could find no other chemicals to test, and than I made my charts. Discussion The following documents the outcome from my experiments. You can find the rest of the charts elsewhere on my report stand: Acids and Bases and their Levels  Chemicals pH Level Acid or Base Sulfuric Acid 1 Acid Citrus Acid 2 Acid Hydrochloric Acid 2 Acid Acetic Acid 2 Acid Ascorbic Acid 3 Acid Acetylsalicylic Acid 4 Acid Hydrogen Peroxide 5 Acid Sodium Bicarbonate 9 Base Magnesium Hydroxide 9 Base Sodium Hydroxide 12 Base As you can see, this chart tells you the chemical, acidity or base content, and it tells you whether its an acid or a base. The chart below will tell more about the chemicals I used and their formulas or scientific names. Chemical Name Chemical Formula Equivalency Acids Acetic Acid HC2H3O2 Vinegar Hydrogen Peroxide H2O2 Dental Rinse (Artificial Blonde) Acetylsalicylic Acid HC9H7O4 Aspirin Ascorbic Acid H2C6H6O6 Vitamin C Citric Acid H3C6H5O7 Lemon Juice, Citrus Fruits Hydrochloric Acid HCl Gastric Juices, (Stomach Acid) Sulfuric Acid H2SO4 Battery Acid Bases Magnesium Hydroxide MgOH2 Milk of Magnesia, (Antacid or Laxative) Sodium Hydroxide NaOH Drain and Oven Cleaners, (Drano) Sodium Bicarbonate NaHCO3 Baking Soda These are the chemicals that I used, along with their chemical structure and scientific names. You could see their pH levels on the 1st chart. The only few errors I could have had are when I cut the amount of Baking Soda an Aspirin in half so it would be more economical and easier to do. Other than that one, every experiment was done identically. Conclusion From my experiments and data collected, I have discovered that on average a pH level two to four acid will neutralize with a level eight to ten base. However, any Extremely high acid or base levels will not be neutralized, such as the Sodium Hydroxide or Sulfuric Acid, because they are such higher levels, the ratios would have to be changed to get an exact neutralization. I also found out how to get the most extravagant explosion using Sulfuric Acid and Baking Soda. However, for most houses where there is not any battery acid, Citric Acid, Hydrochloric, and Vinegar and Baking Soda work very well too. Note to environmentalists: The sulfuric acid was completely neutralized and properly discarded. Credits I would like to thank all the people who helped me with this project. I would especially like to thank my mother, for letting my go through an abundance of Baking Soda, Vinegar, and many of our other household items. I would like to thank my Father for helping me understand the science of this project, and my whole family for helping me do well. I'd also like to give credit to the following Brands of substances I used: Arm & Hammer Drano Revco Aspirin Mylanta Seaway And any other products I may have used along the way. Bibliography "Sodium Bicarbonate" American Heritage Dictionary and Electronic Thesaurus (1985) 21: 347 "Acids and Bases" Science Activities Winter 95, Vol. 31 issue 4, p28. McCarthy, E. Jerome Basic Chemistry Homewood Illinois: Irwin-Dorsey, 1968.  

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