+ 1-888-787-5890  
   + 1-302-351-4405  

Essay/Term paper: The population growth rate in india

Essay, term paper, research paper:  Society Term Papers

Free essays available online are good but they will not follow the guidelines of your particular writing assignment. If you need a custom term paper on Society Term Papers: The Population Growth Rate In India, you can hire a professional writer here to write you a high quality authentic essay. While free essays can be traced by Turnitin (plagiarism detection program), our custom written essays will pass any plagiarism test. Our writing service will save you time and grade.

The Population Growth Rate in India

For many years concern has been voiced over the seemingly unchecked rate
of population growth in India, but the most recent indications are that some
success is being achieved in slowing the rate of population growth. The
progress which has been achieved to date is still only of a modest nature and
should not serve as premature cause for complacency. Moreover, a slowing of the
rate of population growth is not incompatible with a dangerous population
increase in a country like India which has so huge a population base to begin
with. Nevertheless, the most recent signs do offer some occasion for adopting a
certain degree of cautious optimism in regard to the problem.
One important factor which is responsible for viewing the future with
more optimism than may previously have been the case has been the increase in
the size of the middle class, a tendency which has been promoted by the current
tendency to ease restrictions on entrepreneurship and private investment. It is
a well-known fact that as persons become more prosperous and better educated
they begin to undertake measures designed to eliminate the size of their
families. (The obvious exception would be families like the Kennedys who
adhere to religious strictures against artificial birth control, but the major
Indian religions have traditionally lacked such strictures.) Ironically, the
state of Kerala which had long had a Communist-led government had for many years
represented a population planning model because of its implementation of
programs fostering education and the emancipation of women. The success of such
programs has indicated that even the poorer classes can be induced to think in
terms of population control and family planning through education, but increased
affluence correspondingly increases the pressure for the limitation of family
size, for parents who enjoy good life want to pass it on to their children under
circumstances where there will be enough to go around. In contrast, under
conditions of severe impoverishment there is not only likely to be lack of
knowledge of family planning or access to modes of birth control, but children
themselves are likely to be viewed as an asset. Or, perhaps one might more
accurately say with regard to India, sons are viewed as an asset. We will have
more to say later about the relationship between gender and population growth,
but here we may make the obvious point that if a family seeks sons it may also
have to bring into the world some "unwanted" daughters, thereby furthering the
trend towards large families. Under conditions of severe impoverishment,
attended as it has traditionally been by high childhood mortality rates, "it has
estimated for India that in order to have a 95 per cent probability of raising a
son to adulthood, the couple had to have at least six children."
In general, direct efforts on the part of government to promote family
planning have had only limited success in India. In large part this has been
due to the factors which have traditionally operated in Indian culture and
society to promote large families, of which more will be said later. Here,
however, it might be noted that the most common family planning modes have
proven difficult to implement under Indian conditions. Where government efforts
are concerned, "for mass consumption only three methods are...advocated:
sterilization (vasectomy for fathers and tubectomy for mothers), IUDs and
condoms." Sterilization has traditionally met with strong resistance among
uneducated sectors of the population who associate it with loss of virility or
feminimity, and, often being irrevocable, it has been a source of understandable
concern in a society where couples who may already have several children risk
losing some or all of them as a result of such factors as epidemics earthquakes
or floods. Resistance to sterilization has traditionally been strongest among
men, Chandrasekhar suggesting that the prevalence of tubectomies as opposed to
vasactomies serving serving indication that "women are becoming increasingly
aware of the problem and want to solve it without waiting for their husbands to
decide on vasectomy."
In regard to IUD, which has been promoted since its introduction in
India in 1963, the method has not proven popular because of the relative
frequency of excessive bleeding and, though more infrequent, involuntary
expulsion. Taking note of the fact that in traditional Indian society
gynecology, obstetrics and other fields requiring intimate contact and
conversation with women are invariably reserved to female doctors only,
Chandrasekhar observes that "the real problem is the lack of sufficient numbers
of dedicated women physicians who are willing to work in rural areas and spend
some time in pre-insertion and post-insertion follow-up of their patients."
The third major mode of contraception-condom use has seen a marked increase in
usage in India in recent years; however, much of this increase has been due less
to family planning concerns but to fear of AIDS on the part of sexually-active
persons, such as prostitutes and their clients, who could be expected to take
precautions against pregnancy anyway. As for the pill, it still has not proven
a major contraceptive mode among the uneducated masses who are most inclined to
have large families.
In addition to long-recognized family planning modes, other factors have
been operating to limit the rate of population growth in recent years.
Unfortunately, infanticide of girl babies has become increasingly commonplace in
India, perhaps because the growth in materialism has led the lower classes to
become more and more aware of the "undesirability" of girls. While the Hindu
emphases upon dowery, which can have the effect of impoverishing a family with
many daughters, is no doubt a significant contributing factor, it should be
pointed out that population figures for Pakistan and Bangla Desh would suggest a
prevalence of infanticide of girl babies in these nation as well, despite the
fact that under Islam there has traditionally been no dowery at marriage but,
instead, a so-called "bridal price" paid by the family of the groom. Thus,
indications are that Muslims throughout the subcontinent have accepted the
Indian cultural presumption that girl babies are undesirable even though under
Islam the bride's parents theoretically stand to benefit financially. Mahmood
Mamdan notes that, in regard to India, "the preferential treatment of male over
female clearly shows in the much higher infant death rate among females and in
the resulting higher ratios of males over females in general population," adding
that "in most other parts of the world, females of a general population have
lower death rates than males." Indeed, except for the Arab all countries of the
Persian Gulf, which offer employment to large numbers of unmarried men from
other areas of the Middle East, the only other countries which display a
population ratio significantly in favor of males on the Indian pattern are
Pakistan and Bangla Desh, where, as has already been noted, the infanticide of
female babies presumable also prevails.
In addition to the elimination of girl babies, either through outright
murder or the denying them food and care traditionally given to boys, abortion,
on the basis of amniocentesis, has been another means of population control
where girl babies are concerned. As in the case of infanticide, the authorities
have been largely powerless to restrict the practice, abortion being for the
most part legal in India even though the use of amniocentesis for the purpose of
aborting a healthy female baby is theoretically against the law. Another means
of reducing the "unwanted" girl babies is abandonment to charitable
organizations under circumstances where adoption will result. The anonymous
abandonment of children to charitable agencies is the another practice that is
illegal but impossible for the government to prevent, for the agencies
understandably hesitate to refuse to accept a child from a parent apparently
intent on abandonment for fear that infanticide will then be resorted to by such
a parent. And, although Indian law requires that an adoption agency give
priority to placement with families within India, the relative paucity of Indian
couples seeking to adopt children insures that virtually all babies given up for
adoption will find homes in the affluent industrialized countries of the West.
We have therefore seen that, while the rate of India's population growth
has been slowing, some of the measures adopted to this end are not of the best.
To insure that comprehensive family planning programs find widespread acceptance
considerably more progress needs to be made in raising the standard of living of
the Indian masses for "although the wealthier, better-educated urban families do
curtail their fertility, the poor have not had the means or motivation to do
so." "Most important, perhaps," writes John Cool, is the fact that thousands of
years of Indian experience have shaped cultural values and social institutions,
which encourage the survival of the family and the community through high
fertility. Modernization is slowly changing this situation, but to insure
success considerably more progress needs to be made.


Chandrasekhar, S. Abortion in a Crowded World: The problem of abortion with
special reference to India (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1974).

Franda, Marcus F. (ed.). Response to Population Growth in India: Changes in
Social, Political, and Economic Behavior (New Yew: Praeger, 1975)

Bahnisikha. The Indian Population Problem: A Household economics Approach (New
Delhi: Sage Publications, 1990)

Mandelbaum, David G. Human Fertility in India: Social Components and Policy
Perspectives (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974).


Other sample model essays:

Society Term Papers / The Population Problem
The Population Problem Two hundred years ago, Thomas Malthus, in An Essay on the Principle of Population, reached the conclusion that the number of people in the world will increase exponenti...
The Potential Effects of a Depleted Ozone Layer "And God said, let there be light and there was light and then God saw the light, that it was good " ( Genesis 1: 3-4 ). Undoubtedly, li...
The Recent Negative Effect of Technology on Society Roy Kantrowitz Mr. Ingram English 101/105 Report Ever since the Industrial revolution, technology has been changing at a fast pace. ...
Society Term Papers / The Choosing Of A Landfill Site
The Choosing of a Landfill Site There is currently much debate on the desirability of landfilling particular wastes, the practicability of alternatives such as waste minimisation or pre- trea...
Society Term Papers / Value Of Environmental Agencies
Value of Environmental Agencies In current times man has become so consumed with weapons and money that the planet has been neglected. With something so typical and now common as chopp...
Environment Report: Tidal Power In The Bay of Fundy Prepared for Bill Andrson Professor at St.Lawrence College for Environmental Science. By November 22,1996 INTRODUCTION The Ba...
Society Term Papers / Time To Change
Time To Change The earth and many of its contents, thanks in large part to humans, is deteriorating and it has been for quite a time now. It is overwhelmingly populated with both ignorant an...
Society Term Papers / Urban Heat Islands
Urban Heat Islands For more than 100 years, it has been known that two adjacent cities are generally warmer than the surrounding areas. This region of city warmth, known as an urban heat isl...
Using Bicycles As An Alternative To Automobiles October 21, 1996 Ecology & Design University of Colorado Abstract: This paper basically shows the reasons to use the bicycle as an altern...
Animal Rights / Veterinary Medicine
Veterinary Medicine For my agriculture report, I chose to do a report on veterinarians. I chose this career field because I like working with animals and learning about them. While doi...
Experience with Dream Essay - Reliable and great customer service. Quality of work - High quality of work.
, ,
Dream Essay - Very reliable and great customer service. Encourage other to try their service. Writer 91463 - Provided a well written Annotated Bibliography with great deal of detail per th
, ,
it is always perfect
, ,
The experience with Dream Essay is stress free. Service is excellent and forms various forms of communication all help with customer service. Dream Essay is customer oriented. Writer 17663
, ,
Only competent & proven writers
Original writing — no plagiarism
Our papers are never resold or reused, period
Satisfaction guarantee — free unlimited revisions
Client-friendly money back guarantee
Total confidentiality & privacy
Guaranteed deadlines
Live Chat & 24/7 customer support
All academic and professional subjects
All difficulty levels
12pt Times New Roman font, double spaced, 1 inch margins
The fastest turnaround in the industry
Fully documented research — free bibliography guaranteed
Fax (additional info): 866-332-0244
Fax (additional info): 866-308-7123
Live Chat Support
Need order related assistance?—Click here to submit a inquiry
© Dreamessays.com. All Rights Reserved.
Dreamessays.com is the property of MEDIATECH LTD