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Essay/Term paper: Intel

Essay, term paper, research paper:  Economics

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Results of operations. Intel broke a record in net revenues in 1995, for the
ninth consecutive year, rising by 41% from 1994 to 1995 and by 31% from 1993 to
1994. Higher volumes of the rapidly raising Pentium microprocessor family,
partially offset by lower prices, and increased sales of related board-level
products were responsible for most of the growth in revenues in 1994 and 1995.
Revenues from the Intel486 microprocessor family declined substantially in 1995
due to a shift in market demand toward the Company's Pentium microprocessors and
lower Intel486 microprocessor prices.

Higher volumes of flash memory and chipset products also contributed toward the
increase in revenues from 1993 to 1995 and also helped enable the successful
Pentium microprocessor ramp. Sales of system platforms, embedded control
products, and networking and communications products also grew.

Cost of sales increased by 40% from 1994 to 1995 and by 71% from 1993 to 1994.
The growth in cost of sales from 1993 to 1995 was driven by Pentium
microprocessor and board-level unit volume growth, new factories coming into
production, shifts in process and product mix, and in the fourth quarter of 1995,
by costs associated with unusually high reserves related to inventories of
certain purchased components. Gross margin for the fourth quarter of 1994
included the impact of a $475 million charge, primarily to cost of sales, to
cover replacement costs, replacement material and an inventory record related to
a divide problem in the floating point unit of the Pentium microprocessor. As a
result of the above factors, the gross margin percentage was 52% in 1995 and
1994, compared to 63% in 1993.

Quarterly unit shipments of the Pentium microprocessor family passed those of
the Intel486 microprocessor family during the third quarter of 1995. The Company
helped accelerate this transition by offering chipsets and motherboards to
enable computer manufacturers to bring their products to market faster. Sales of
the Pentium microprocessor family comprised a majority of the Company's revenues
and a substantial majority of its gross margin during 1995. During 1995, the
Intel486 microprocessor family represented a significant but rapidly declining
portion of the Company's revenues and gross margins. The Intel486 microprocessor
family comprised a majority of the Company's revenues and a substantial majority
of its gross margin during 1993 and 1994.

Research and development spending grew by 17% from 1994 to 1995, as the Company
continued to invest in strategic programs, particularly for the internal
development of microprocessor products and related manufacturing technology.
Increased spending for marketing programs, including media merchandising and the
Company's Intel Inside cooperative advertising program, drove the 27% increase
in marketing, general and administrative expenses from 1994 to 1995.

The $28 million decrease in interest expense from 1994 to 1995 was mainly due to
lower average borrowing balances in addition to higher interest capitalization
resulting from increased facility construction programs. The increase in
interest expense from 1993 to 1994 was primarily due to higher average interest
rates on borrowings, partially offset by higher interest capitalization.

The Company utilizes investments and corresponding interest rate swaps to
preserve principal while enhancing the yield on its investment portfolio without
significantly increasing risk, and uses forward contracts, options and swaps to
hedge currency, market and interest rate exposures. Gains and losses on these
instruments are generally offset by those on the underlying hedged transactions;
as a result, there was no material net impact on the Company's financial results
during the 1993-1995 period.

The Company's effective income tax rate increased to 36.8% in 1995 compared to
36.5% and 35.0% in 1994 and 1993, respectively. The increases in rate from 1993
to 1995 resulted from the fact that tax credits have not grown as rapidly as
overall pretax income.

Financial condition

The Company's financial condition remains very strong. As of December 30, 1995,
total cash and short- and long-term investments totaled $4.11 billion, down from
$4.54 billion at December 31, 1994. Cash generated from operating activities
rose to $4.03 billion in 1995, compared to $2.98 billion and $2.80 billion in
1994 and 1993, respectively.

Investing activities consumed $2.69 billion in cash during 1995, compared to
$2.90 billion during 1994 and $3.34 billion during 1993. Capital expenditures
increased substantially in both 1994 and 1995, as the Company continued to
invest in the property, plant and equipment needed for future business
requirements, including manufacturing capacity. The Company expects to spend
approximately $4.1 billion for capital additions in 1996 and had committed
approximately $1.47 billion for the construction or purchase of property, plant
and equipment as of December 30, 1995.

Inventory levels, particularly raw materials and finished goods, increased
significantly in 1995. This increase was primarily attributable to the increased
level of business and, to a lesser extent, to an unusually low level of
inventory at the end of 1994 because of a report of inventories in the fourth
quarter of 1994 in connection with the divide problem in the floating point unit
of the Pentium processor. The increase in accounts receivable in 1995 was mainly
due to revenue growth, including the growth of non-domestic sales that have
longer payment terms. During 1995, the Company experienced an increase in its
concentration of credit risk due to increasing trade receivables from sales to
manufacturers of microcomputer systems. The Company's five largest customers
accounted for approximately 33% of net revenues for 1995. At December 30, 1995,
these customers accounted for approximately 34% of net accounts receivable. A
portion of the receivable balance from one of its five largest customers has
been converted into a loan. The total amount receivable from this customer was
approximately $400 million at December 30, 1995.

The Company used $1.06 billion and $557 million for financing activities in 1995
and 1994, respectively, while $352 million was provided in 1993. The major
financing application of cash in 1995 was for stock repurchases totaling $1.03
billion. Financing applications of cash in 1994 included stock repurchases of
$658 million and the early retirement of the Company's 8 1/8% debt. Sources of
financing in 1993 included the Company's public offering of the 1998 Step-Up
Warrants, which resulted in proceeds of $287 million.

As part of its authorized stock repurchase program, the Company had outstanding
put warrants at the end of 1995, with the potential obligation to buy back 12
million shares of its Common Stock at an aggregate price of $725 million. The
exercise price of these warrants ranges from $38 to $68 per share, with an
average exercise price of $60 per share.

Other sources of liquidity include combined credit lines and authorized
commercial paper borrowings of $1.86 billion, $57 million of which was
outstanding at December 30, 1995. The Company also maintains the ability to
issue an aggregate of approximately $1.4 billion in debt, equity and other
securities under Securities and Exchange Commission shelf registration
statements. The Company believes that it has the financial resources needed to
meet business requirements in the foreseeable future, including capital
expenditures for the recently announced expansion of international manufacturing
sites, working capital requirements, the potential put warrant obligation and
the dividend program.

Outlook. The statements contained in this Outlook are based on current
expectations. These statements are forward looking, and actual results may
differ materially. Intel expects that the total number of personal computers
using Intel's Pentium microprocessors and other semiconductor components sold
worldwide will continue to grow in 1996. Intel has expanded manufacturing
capacity over the last few years and continues to expand capacity to be able to
meet the potential increase in demand. Intel's financial results are to a large
extent dependent on this market segment. Revenue is also a function of the
distribution of microprocessor speed and performance levels, which is difficult
to forecast. Because of the large price difference between components for the
highest and lowest performance computers, this distribution affects the average
price Intel will realize and has a large impact on Intel's revenues.

Intel's strategy has been, and continues to be, to introduce ever higher
performance microprocessors and work with the software industry to develop
compelling applications that can take advantage of this higher performance, thus
driving demand toward the newer products. Capacity has been planned based on the
assumed continued success of the Company's strategy. In line with this strategy,
the Company has recently announced higher speed members of the Pentium Pro
microprocessor family. If the market demand does not continue to grow and move
rapidly toward higher performance products, revenue growth may be impacted, the
manufacturing capacity installed might be under-utilized and capital spending
may be slowed. The Company may continue to reduce microprocessor prices
aggressively and systematically to bring its technology to market.

The Company's gross margin percentage is a sensitive function of the product mix
sold in any period. Because the percentage of motherboards that Intel's
customers purchase changes with maturity of the product cycle, and motherboards
generally have lower gross margin percentages than microprocessors, Intel's
gross margin percentage varies depending on the mix of microprocessors and
related motherboards within a product family. Various other factors, including
unit volumes and costs and yield issues associated with initiating production at
new factories or on new processes, also will continue to affect the amount of
cost of sales and the variability of gross margin percentages in future quarters.
From time to time the Company may forecast a range of gross margin percentages
for the coming quarter. Actual results may differ. Longer term gross margin
percentages are even more difficult to predict.

To implement its strategy, Intel continues to build capacity to produce high-
performance microprocessors and other products. The Company expects that capital
spending will increase to approximately $4.1 billion in 1996. This spending plan
is dependent upon delivery times of various machines and construction schedules
for new facilities. Based on this forecast, depreciation for 1996 is expected to
be approximately $1.9 billion, an increase of approximately $500 million from
1995. Most of this increased depreciation will be included in cost of sales and
research and development spending.

The industry in which Intel operates is characterized by very short product life
cycles. Intel considers it imperative to maintain a strong research and
development program to continue to succeed. Accordingly, research and
development spending is expected to grow in 1996 to approximately $1.6 billion.
The Company will also continue spending to promote its products and to increase
the value of its product brands. Based on current forecasts, spending for
marketing and general and administrative expenses is expected to increase in

Intel believes that it has the product offerings, facilities, personnel, and
competitive and financial resources for continued business success, but future
revenues, costs, margins, product mix and profits are all influenced by a number
of factors, as discussed above.


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