+ 1-888-787-5890  
   + 1-302-351-4405  

Essay/Term paper: U.s and japan car industries

Essay, term paper, research paper:  Economics

Free essays available online are good but they will not follow the guidelines of your particular writing assignment. If you need a custom term paper on Economics: U.S And Japan Car Industries, you can hire a professional writer here to write you a high quality authentic essay. While free essays can be traced by Turnitin (plagiarism detection program), our custom written essays will pass any plagiarism test. Our writing service will save you time and grade.

U.S and Japan Car Industries

It is unfortunate that the U.S. chose to use automobiles as its wedge to open
the alleged "closed" markets of Japan. One Japan-based managing executive of the
Big Three has even admitted that they consider the Japanese automobile market to
be open. Japan is not the island of protectionism in a sea of free trade that
its critic allege. The problem for the U.S. auto-makers is not a lack of market
access, but a lack of effort. The first step required for the U.S. auto makers
to sell competitively in Japan is not to impose of ridiculous tariffs, but to
have Detroit bring up the quality to Japanese standards. All in all, the U.S.'s
decision to use automobiles as its wedge to open the Japanese market was surely
a dangerous one. In addition, the utilization of unilateral actions by the U.S.
is clearly a violation of international trade law. Not only is this decision a
resemblance of managed trade but a policy which will weaken the leadership
position of the U.S. in the world economy as well.
The U.S. needs to do what the Japanese did when they penetrated the American
market; hard market research and heavy investment. The Japanese spent billions
of dollars studying American taste and manufacturing models that suited them.
The Big Three have generally confined their efforts to sending models that they
have made specifically for Americans. Bill Duncan, the head of the Japan
Automobile Manufacturers Assn. states that "it was the basic principals of
competition that made the Japanese automobile industry strong."
One example which reflects the short-sightedness of the Big Three is the
insufficient number of right-hand models available in Japan. Since cars in Japan
are driven on the left side, all domestic makers produce right-hand drives. It's
simple, the inconvenience of a left-hand drive, at tolls, parking lots or when
overtaking another car is too dangerous. Naturally when the Japanese export
their cars to the U.S., in each of the 190 versions sold, they provide American
drivers with a steering wheel where they expect it; on the left side1. On the
other hand U.S. exports have a grand total of 2 models which feature a right-
hand drive. The Big Three sold a measly 22,000 left-hand models in 1994. Jeep
sold 11,000 on their Cherokees alone, just because they remodeled it to a right-
hand model2.
Another area in which Detroit must seek change is in car size. In Japan, the
normal American cars are just too big. 80% of the cars in Japan are under 2000cc
(2L.) Imagine yourself driving on the jammed packed, narrow streets of Tokyo.
The Big Three exports not a single model which falls within these specifications.
In comparison, the successful Europeans have 124 models under 2000cc and listen
to this Detroit, a selection of over 100 models which are right-hand drive3.
This clearly implies that efforts by the Big Three seem to be insufficient
compared to that of Europeans.
An area of the Japanese car industry in which America showed tremendous
dissatisfaction during the negotiation was the exclusive dealerships, or as
Professor Morrison noted in his class, the "keiretsu." It is true, each domestic
manufacturer is closely linked with dealers, but as the New York Times (June 28,
'95) reports, the dealership issue is largely beside the point: the Big Three
already have twice as many outlets in Japan as all the European auto makers
combined, yet they sell fewer cars. In the past, America succeeded in cracking
the European market with GM and Ford, putting extra care and money over the
decades into establishing dealer networks. This shows in the statistics; as the
two companies occupy 25% of the European market4. This brings us to a question:
Why doesn't the U.S. after enjoying such a success in Europe, put in the same
kind of effort into the Japanese market. Maybe U.S. companies should reconsider
just what it takes to succeed. German auto-makers alone, who have commanded over
50% of the import market in Japan, have invested nearly $1 billion in Japan.
"The massive investments helps. Dealers wonder how serious we are" says
Volkswagen Japan manager Minoru Suzuki. Comparatively, American spending is
estimated at $120 million, with Ford eating $100 million of the pie5.
Along with the complaint about the keiretsu, Americans plead that
astronomical land costs makes it hard to set up their own dealerships. However
the same applies to Japanese makers as well. A couple years ago, Mazda, who is
considered a minor player in the Japanese market, established a new dealership
network for its new model. The fact is they competed under the same harsh
conditions as the American but with fewer resources and still succeeded in
establishing a very stable and profitable network. There are many other
examples as well. The U.S. should keep their mouth closed and intensify their
efforts in the Japanese market.
As explained above, the reason for America's continued failure in taking a
strong hold on the Japanese car industry is mostly a lack of effort. For that
reason, the U.S.'s complaining about a lack of market access, their blaming
market shortcomings on Japan and their utilization of unilateral actions to pry
open the Japanese market will endanger America's position as an economic leader
of the world. Automobiles is a large issue in trade negotiations, but a small
part of the macro-economy. If the U.S. were to keep a stance similar to that
which they held during the automobile negotiations in June and other nations
retaliated to this stance, the world economy will head into a generation of
managed trade.

Bibliographic Sources

"Big 3 and Japan." New York Times, June 26, 1995.

Borrus, Amy with Bill Javetski. "Who's Afraid of the World Trade Organization."
Business Week, June 5, 1995, p.35.

Borrus, Amy with John Templeman, Keith Naughton, Edith Updike and Bureau Report.
"Good Deal? Yes. Great Deal? No." Business Week, July 10, 1995, p.32-33.

"Clinton's Phoney Peace." The Economist, July 1, 1995, p.13.

Dornbusch, Rudi. "Sanctions against Japan: A Necessary Evil." Business Week,
July 3, 1995, p.20.

Hamilton, David. "Calmer Voices Amid the Trade Bluster." Wall Street Journal,
June 22, 1995.

"Ignorant Armies." National Review, June 26, 1995, p.20.

Kelly, Kevin with Zachary Schiller and Edith Updike. "Buy Our Car Seats. Japan,
or It's War." Business Week, June 26, 1995, p.42.

Kuttner, Robert. "You Could Drive a Lexus through the Holes in the WTO."
Business Week, June 12, 1995, p.24

"OK Mickey, Let's Say You Won." The Economist, July 1, 1995, p.65.

"The New Thirst for Imports in Japan." Business Week, June 5, 1995, p.52.

Updike, Edith. "Roadblocks, Roadblocks Everywhere." Business Week, June 19, 1995,

Updike, Edith with Brian Bremner, Amy Borrus, David Woodruff and Larry Armstrong.
"Japan's Auto Shock." Business Week, May 29, 1995, p.44. The New Strategies to
Expand by Big Three (as of Dec. '95)

- together with Toyota, will unveil a right-hand model of subcompact Cavalier
- plans to offer U.S. built right-hand drive Saturn by 1997
- aims to sell right-hand drive Cadillacs in near future

- displayed right-hand version of new Taurus mid-size sedan and Explorer
- Taurus will be available in spring '96 and Explorer in fall '96
- aims to expand distribution outlets to 700 from 310 by year 2000
- aims to push sales to 200,000 annually by year 2000 from 56,000 this year

- displayed five right-hand drive model which will be available by fall '95
- aims to expand oulets to 200 by next yeat from 100 this year
- payed Seibu group $100 million to expand distribution network


Other sample model essays:

US and Russia relations after the defeat of the USSR: The end of Cold War brought new challenges to Russian life, economy and politics. Actually, the post-Cold War period opened the new...
U.S. and Swedish Trends in Tax Reform Tax reform has become a major governmental policy issue in the United States as well as in the rest of the world. Countries are attempting to balance ...
U.S Auto Industry's Market Share and Fluctuations The U. S. auto industry's share of the market has experienced fluctuations over the past 50 years. These fluctuations have been caused by many...
The Forever Changing Economy How easy is it for smaller business men to achieve the Aamerican dream. How to stop corporate domination. The question I pose to you is " Is the American ...
The Used Car Industry In the past 30 years, the United States auto industry has gone through many changes. In order to stay competitive with a foreign market, constantly threatening to eat a...
Creative Writing: Utopia Z Utopia Z: Recreation Besides being able to live comfortable and easily, the people also have a lot of recreation to do, with in Utopia Z. ...
Economics / Virtual Banking
Virtual Banking TABLE OF CONTENTS 01.00............ EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 02.00............ TRENDS IN RETAIL BANKING 03.00............ ABOUT THE INTERNE...
Counterfeiting: We're In The Money A frequently asked question by a customer is "Can you break a hundred dollar bill?" If this request has been granted, why do the cashiers take the ...
What Are The History, Laws, Profitability, and Responsibilities To The Consumer Of Advertising Hard Liquor on TV In The United States? INTRODUCTION Purpose The goal of this report is to ...
What Went Wrong with America's Schools? Education is the key to any countries economic success. For a country to be economically sound, the business and industry within that country must b...
Experience with Dream Essay - Reliable and great customer service. Quality of work - High quality of work.
, ,
Dream Essay - Very reliable and great customer service. Encourage other to try their service. Writer 91463 - Provided a well written Annotated Bibliography with great deal of detail per th
, ,
it is always perfect
, ,
The experience with Dream Essay is stress free. Service is excellent and forms various forms of communication all help with customer service. Dream Essay is customer oriented. Writer 17663
, ,
Only competent & proven writers
Original writing — no plagiarism
Our papers are never resold or reused, period
Satisfaction guarantee — free unlimited revisions
Client-friendly money back guarantee
Total confidentiality & privacy
Guaranteed deadlines
Live Chat & 24/7 customer support
All academic and professional subjects
All difficulty levels
12pt Times New Roman font, double spaced, 1 inch margins
The fastest turnaround in the industry
Fully documented research — free bibliography guaranteed
Fax (additional info): 866-332-0244
Fax (additional info): 866-308-7123
Live Chat Support
Need order related assistance?—Click here to submit a inquiry
© Dreamessays.com. All Rights Reserved.
Dreamessays.com is the property of MEDIATECH LTD