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Essay/Term paper: Sexual transmitted diseases defined

Essay, term paper, research paper:  Medicine

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Sexual Transmitted Diseases Defined


TABLE OF CONTENTS

I . Sexually transmitted diseaeses defined

II. Genital Herpes

III. Vaginal Candidiasis

IV. Chlamydia

V. Prevention

VI. Bibliography


A sexually transmitted disease is not the same as genital disease. Most
genital diseases are not caused by sexually transmitted organisms. But most
sexually transmitted infections do involve the genitals. Infection of the
rectum, throat, and the eye are also common. Alot of sexually transmitted
diseases spread from a single place and produce sores on parts of the body. At
least a dozen diseases are sexually transmitted. Sexually transmitted diseases
occur mainly in people 15 to 30 years of age. But sometimes people are born
with it because of an infected mother. People with a sexually transmitted
Disease are usually at high risk for catching other diseases. There are more
male infections reported than female cases. This is caused by prostitutes and
homosexual contacts. 50 percent or more infections result from homosexual
contacts. Other infections like syphilis, herpes, and HIV infection may be
passed on to the fetus or during childbirth. The fetus or baby can suffer from
the disease and can die from it. The helping of STDs has three parts:
treatment, counseling, and following up. Sometimes treatment is given in a
single dose but in sometimes you have to take it more than once. A person can
still be infected even if the symptoms go away. That is why a follow-up visit
is important. To avoid spreading the infection the person should not have sex
until the doctor says that it is cured. It can take up to fourteen days. This
stops the Ping Pong effect.

GENITAL HERPES

This infection is caused by the Herpes simplex virus. The symptoms are
similar, and can result from either oral-to-genital or genital-to-genital
contact. The virus causes blisters on the genitals, similar to the cold sores
that occur on the mouth. Cold sores on the mouth are also caused by the herpes
virus. These infections are caused by viruses cures are not available. It has
been estimated that approximately 1 in 6 people in Australia has had a history
of genital herpes at some time.

Not all people infected with the herpes virus will have symptoms. As
many as 60-70% of people with herpes virus type 2 infection by a blood test
have not had symptoms diagnosed as genital herpes.

Things occur most often on the penile shaft, glans or anal area and on
the labia, clitoris,vagina or cervix. They also are around the mouth or on the
throat after oral sex. . Genital herpes is usually more painful in women
Vaginal and blisters may be so painful that women become unable to pass urine.
It is important to get early treatment in order to prevent this from getting
worse. Some symptoms happen for 1 to 3 weeks. Herpes lives in the body between
symptoms. Relapses can happen by emotional or physical stress, fever, trauma,
hormonal changes, sunlight, alcohol. There are two different Infections
Asymptomatic Infections and Neonatal Infections.

Genital herpes can be passed on through most forms of sexual contact,
genital-to-genital, oral-to-genital, and mutual masturbation. Many people are
unaware that cold sores may cause genital infection during oral sex. It is also
possible for a person to transfer herpes from their own mouth to their genitals,
and to their eyes. Condoms may further reduce spread between attacks.

Some treatments that can relieve discomfort: -Keeping sores clean and dry -
Wrapping an ice-block in a towel -Bathing in salt water -Drinking plenty of
water -If urination is painful, urinating in a hot bath or, for women, using
both hands to separate -the lips of the vulva to achieve a free stream of urine,
preventing urine from touching the
ulcers. -Wearing loose, cotton underpants and avoiding tight trousers -
aspirin

Anti-Herpes Drugs: Acyclovir

The use of condoms during vaginal and anal intercourse reduces the risk
of genital herpes, but protects only those areas in contact with the condom.
Because herpes can be transmitted from mouth-to-genitals condoms or dental dams
may be used during oral sex. If there are sores , it is important to avoid
oral sex. Because herpes can be spread by the hands between people, it is
important to wash your hands if they have come into contact with sores.

VAGINAL CANDIDIASIS ("THRUSH", MONILIA, YEAST)

The yeast like organisms that cause candidiasis are very common and
normally are in the vagina as well as the mouth and in the intestines of most
people. Candida is not an actual STD. It is seen in most sexually active people.
The presence of candida doesn't usually have symptoms. There is a change in
the pH of the vagina and may cause a problem in the balance of the normal flora.
As a result, candidal overgrowth can occur and then cause symptoms. Some things
that cause symptoms are heat, moisture, diabetes, steroid medications, cancer,
chronic infection, and malnutrition . Men can also get candidiasis, which
causes balanitis which causes inflammation of the glans penis. This usually
happens to uncircumcised men who still have a foreskin which gives moist
conditions for candidal overgrowth.

Some symptoms are itchiness in the anal and genital area, which
intensifies at night, smooth to firm vaginal pus discharges, inflamed, split,
and abraded skin and Inflammation of the glans penis.

There is some treatment to change some of the factors that prevent the
organism to spread. Minor vaginal candidiasis is treated with anti fungal agent
in the form a capsule of nystatin which is inserted into the vagina, or a
vaginal cream. Another way to treat this is natural yoghurt which can be
inserted into the vagina or a vinegar and water douche. Genital and oral
antifungal therapy can be effective also, however, thrush can always recur
because candida lives in the bowel. Candida cannot be permanently taken care of.
Carefully washing and drying of the anal and genital area using soap helps
somewhat.

CHLAMYDIA

Chlamydia grows within cells. Chlamydia usually infects the cervix and
fallopian tubes of women and the urethra of men. Chlamydial infections are said
to be the most common of all STDs. It is also said that in a population of 15
million, there are up to 300,000 cases of chlamydia each year. There are many
undiagnosed cases of chlamydia in the community. It has been estimated that the
true population of chlamydia in sexually active people may be in the order of
5% to 10%.

Chlamydia often produces no symptoms. 60% of women and 40% of men have
no symptoms. Infection of the cervix and fallopian tubes occurs more, and
chlamydia can also cause urethral infection. Symptoms can include pain in
urination, bladder infection, a thin vaginal discharge of pus and lower
abdominal pain. Inflammation of the cervix with pus is very common. Eye
infections in infants born of infected mothers can also occur. In men,
chlamydia may produce inflammation of the urethra similar to gonorrhoea.
Symptoms for men may include discharges also. The most severe complication of
chlamydia, is the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). As a result of
infection to women it travels into the upper genital tract. Chlamydia can also
lead tothe genital tract in men causing epididymitis,although this is much less
common for men than for women. The risk of infection from person-to-person is
alot like gonorrhoea. It can also be passed to the eye by a hand moistened with
infected fluids. Chlamydia can be transmitted during anal intercourse causing
inflammation of the rectum. Chlamydial infections are treated the best with a
drug doxycycline, taken orally for 10 days. Other infections, such as PID,
require longer treatment.

For prevention, use of condoms during vaginal and anal intercourse
works well. Because chlamydia can infect the eyes, care must be taken to avoid
spreading sexual fluids into them.

PREVENTION OF SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES

Some ways to reduce the chance of having sexual contact with a person infected
are:

1. If you are born of uninfected and not having sex. Which makes life
fairly
uninteresting.

2. Being careful in selecting your partners.

3. If you cannot resist having sex with every person you have a
relationship with,
you can examine your sex partner by looking them to actually see
if they have an
infection.

4. Use of a condom helps the risk of passing on the infection

5. After unprotected sex with your sex partner you should go to the
doctor and
make sure you didn't catch anything.

6. If medical treatment is started, IT IS VERY IMPORTANT TO MAKE SURE
YOU GO TO THE DOCTOR FOR RE-EXAMINATIONS UNTIL THE
DOCTOR SAYS YOUR INFECTION IS CURED.

How to know if you have an STD.

1.Discharge of fluid from the penis or vagina

2.Pain or irritation when urinating or having sex.

3.Sores, blisters, warts, lumps or rashes anywhere in the genital or
anal area.

4.Itchiness or irritation in the genital or anal area

5.Frequent diarrhea

If you have any of these, you should see a doctor at once. Do not wait
for them to go away, even if they do, this does not mean the disease is gone.
Most STDs can go undetected and cause serious illness later. Having no symptoms
doesn't mean that you do not have a STD.

How to avoid STDs.

It is not hard to avoid getting STDs. The risk can be reduced by using
condoms during vaginal or anal sex. Scientific research has shown that latex
condoms are an effective against HIV and the viruses and bacteria that causes
STDs. Condoms, will only protect you against disease if you use them every time
you have sex. Sometimes is not good enough. Another way to avoid STDs not to
have sex at all. Kissing,touching and masturbation. To have sex only with a
partner who has no other sexual partners is an assuring way also.

Bibliography

CLINIC 275
FIRST FLOOR, 275 NORTH TERRACE
ADELAIDE
SOUTH AUSTRALIA 5000

TELEPHONE: +61 (8) 8226 6025
FACSIMILE: +61 (8) 8226 6560
COUNTRY CALLERS (South Australia only): 1 800 806 490

Web site designed and maintained by

Dr Christopher Miller
email: csm@hc2.health.sa.gov.au
Sexually Transmitted Diseases Control Branch
Public and Environmental Health Division
South Australian Health Commission
PO Box 6
Rundle Mall
Adelaide SA 5000
Australia


 

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